History 14/01/20 How the residents of besieged Leningrad was impossible to get out of town
evacuation of the population from the siege of Leningrad, which began on 29 June 1941 and continued until April 1, 1943, took place in three stages. During this time, from the besieged city were taken 1 743 129 people who received shelter in various regions of the USSR.
by Train, by air, by water and ice
Adopted on 29 June 1941, the Leningrad Executive Committee decision Of “removal of children from Leningrad to Leningrad and Yaroslavl region” has launched a massive operation to rescue trapped people.
Starting with the relocation to a safe area children, which in total were exported 390 thousand, in the next step, the authorities began to evacuate worked in the city and region enterprises with all who worked on them specialists and members of their families.
After August 27, 1941, was interrupted rail connections between Leningrad and the “big land”, the first stage of the evacuation was completed. During this period the city was left 488 703 people, including 219 children and 691 164 320 employees.
the Second phase of the removal of the population from Leningrad covered the period from September 1941 to April 1942, when he was involved aircraft, vehicles and started to operate in winter “Way of life”, laid on the ice of lake Ladoga. At this stage hope of survival gained 659 thousand people from among the people of Leningrad, residents of the area and refugees who came here from the occupied by the Nazis Western regions of the USSR.
the Final stage of mass evacuation took place from may to October 1942, and was marked by the rescue of 403 thousand people. In the future, to leave the city, Leningraders had to obtain special permission in the City emergency Commission, which issued such documents prior to 1 April 1943, when it was officially terminated, the transfer of population from Leningradand. According to the calculations of historians to may 1, 1943 in the cultural capital of the USSR was about 640 thousand people.
In the “Unknown blockade” researcher Nicholas Lomakin believes that the authorities carry out the evacuation, did not care much about the fate of ordinary citizens. First they were transported to safe regions employees are important for the country’s defense enterprises and institutions.
the Historian Daniil Kotsyubinsky argues that the primary task facing the leadership of the USSR and Leningrad, was the removal from the surrounded city based it military units and their personnel. Not wanting to prevent getting captured about 500 thousand sailors of the Baltic fleet and soldiers of the Leningrad front, the government first organized crossing to the detriment of civilians.
Not taking into account the removal of children, N. Lomagin focuses on the fact that among the evacuees there were a lot of Leningraders who, in the opinion of the NKVD, was a circle of “politically unreliable persons”. Suggesting that they at the first opportunity can jump on the side of Nazi troops and to start among the citizens anti-Communist agitation, the government removed them from the city.
In this same book it is noted that some of the people of Leningrad did not leave the besieged homeland in the name of patriotism, others out of fear of losing their belongings, others did not believe in a secure life in the evacuation, and the fourth just didn’t have the desire: “For me to leave the house, out of town somewhere in space and in the crazed and the desperate mass of people — there will be death, death…I prefer to die himself from the bombs, from hunger, but at and not to suffer… at the sight of the greatest grief and misery of others, when I’m forced to jump into the stream”.
In the book Alexander Karasev “the people of Leningrad during the siege” is mentioned, that of the 333 functioned in Leningrad region industrial enterprises of all-Union and Republican subordination total evacuation underwent 133.
Most of the remaining 200 plants, though reducing the rate of production, continued its work during the blockade. That is why the evacuation has not affected the people who worked in these industries.
Among those who remained in besieged Leningrad, there were approximately 6 000 scientific personnel of higher educational institutions of the city participated in the solution of defense problems.
doing research and test work, they launched a wide range of activities on creation of new types of ammunition and artillery weapons and their testing.
In the interests of the front functioned Artillery research and Marine polygons Institute of applied chemistry, and Mining Institute, conducted related research and collaborated with the Leningrad industrial enterprises.
Knowing what not bread uniform the person is alive, the authorities of Leningrad in the autumn of 1942, decided on the establishment of another theatre, which now bears the name of Vera Komissarzhevskaya, and the people known as the “Siege.”
According to the memoirs of theatrical figures Mayor Barsky, in September 1942 he was summoned by the head of Department on Affairs of art Boris Zagurskii and ordered in the shortest time to collect a new troupe to stage Patriotic performance of “the Russian people”.
in Addition to theater artists in the siege of Leningrad continued to work as musicians, readers and other members of the art world, helped the citizens and soldiers to relive those terrible days and be distracted from the harsh reality.
© Russian Seven
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