History 07/01/20 How the Nazis helped the Soviet Union to fly in space.
the Hunt for German brains began immediately after the end of world war II. This is understandable: after all, the Germans were ahead of the rest in many areas. Especially the Soviet leadership was interested in the missile programme of the Reich under which the launcher for the first time in history was able to reach out into space.
to Create all the conditions
in early 1946 in the German town of Nordhausen created the Soviet research Institute for the study of V-2 rockets, which also included three plants, computer center and testing facility. Its Director was the famous party and military organizer, Lev Gaidukov, chief engineer took Sergei Korolev and Valentin Glushko headed the Department for the study of engines. But the bulk of the employees still made up the German experts – about 150 people who wished to work for the Soviet Union.
it is Curious that not once party officials praised the proposal of the Soviet designers and engineers not to take out German vehicles and equipment in the Soviet Union, and restore plants in Germany. Many have a suspicion that they are deliberately delaying the return to the war-ravaged country in order to stay longer in the welfare state of Thuringia. However formidable the Moscow inspectors, having dealt with the situation, approved the project.
a few months after the beginning of the work of the Institute in Nordhausen on Stalin’s Desk lay a memo signed by Beria, Malenkov and Bulganin, in which he noted the process of development of Soviet scientists the latest advances of Germany in the field of missile technology. In particular, they reported about the successful work with the technical documentation, which enabled to gather from German parts seven missiles V-2, four of which were preparing for the tests, and three were sent to study in Moscow.
In fact inthe upper made decisions about continuation of works on the territory of the USSR. After the design office by the end of 1946 in the Soviet Union from Germany were supposed to move in and German scientists and their families. As housing for them was allocated 150 Finnish portable houses and 40 homes for up to eight apartments each. It was also prescribed to establish the German specialists in jet technology pay increase.
In the German sample
the German V-2 by the end of the Second world war was an example of the world’s only guided ballistic missiles. It was developed in 1937 by Werner von Braun, who used the ideas of the founder of modern rocketry and manned Astronautics Hermann Oberth.
It V-2 the first was destined to climb to space. In the contemporary view, the border space starts at 100 kilometers, the so-called line of the Pocket where aerodynamic aircraft becomes impossible. February 17, 1943 V-2 instruments on Board overcame the altitude bar in 190 miles! And in early 1944 von Braun with colleagues Helmut Grettrup and Walter Riedel have done calculations that allowed their offspring to put into orbit of the Earth artificial satellite. However, Hitler had not the conquest of space, and weapon of vengeance.
unfortunately, the Soviet Union, unlike the United States, got only minor details V-2. Technology rockets need to rebuild virtually from scratch, using the surviving drawings. In some cases, Soviet and German specialists had multiple fragments to build a very complex aggregations, destroyed by the allies in the course of numerous bombing of Germany.
until the mid-1950s, Soviet rocket scientists your calculations were done in German computing machines. However, trophy technique soon has serious problems: it quickly failed and parts were not. Here and there were home-grown craftsmen, whichwhich has established production of spare parts, only selling them for cash. The Queen had to get out and come up with the option premiums “Trustees”: the money went to purchase the scarce commodity.
One of the most talented Soviet aircraft designers, Viktor Bolkhovitinov, not at first believe that in military terms Germany could create such a powerful engine. Soviet scientists in their experimental liquid rocket engines have achieved a thrust of only a few hundred pounds, and the Germans reached the level of half a ton. Acquainted with the German design, the designer was very surprised that she does not use the usual in the USSR, nitric acid and kerosene. Fuel for V-2 served as ethyl alcohol and liquid oxygen.
the Main initiator of copying the V-2 is considered the Minister of arms of the Soviet Union, Dmitry Ustinov. It was he who convinced Stalin to create the first Soviet rocket of the German model. Criticism he received many. His opponents asserted that the technology the V-2 is already outdated and also had a lot of vulnerabilities.
However, as time has shown, from the organizational point of view, the solution Ustinov was correct. The USSR have not yet had in the early postwar years developed missile industry, would not be able to promptly create and launch their own rocket without adaptation of the German experience. And the king himself has repeatedly said, to begin the task of space exploration need to master the simple rocket, which was V-2.
On another level
Among German scholars who have made a significant contribution to the development of Soviet rocket and space program was Helmut Grettrup, former head of group control ballistic missile at Peenemunde (research centre was established and launched V-2). He was considered one of the main after Wernher von Braun’s rocket experts in the industry. The latter as we know was poached by the Americans. Grettrup also could get the allies, if not for his wife toAya herself initiated a meeting with the Soviet representative and persuaded her husband to work for the Soviet Union. Its main motive is the hatred of Nazism and thanks to the Soviets, who liberated the world from the “brown plague”.
Grettrup, who led the works in the USSR a group of German rocket scientists, was very much a prominent Soviet designer, Boris Chertok. The scientist paid attention to what the German specialist was well informed about the situation at peenemünde and was a person very close to Werner von Braun.
the Work started. In the second half of 1947 in Kapustin Yar group Grettrup and Queen began the first tests of the V-2. October 18, 1947 is an important date for Soviet rocketry: this day was the USSR’s first launch of a ballistic missile. The shell rose to a height of 86 kilometers, but collapsed at the entrance to the dense layers of the atmosphere – its wreckage was found at a distance of over 270 kilometers from the starting point with a deviation slightly above 30 km away from the target.
There have been several dozen launches of the Soviet version of the V-2, unfortunately, every fourth start – up was unsuccessful- the rocket exploded during the passage of the dense layers of the atmosphere. The reason was found quickly: as the heating of the projectile in a sealed housing began to evaporate TNT, which created excessive pressure that ultimately tore the body of the rocket.
For the year shortcomings were eliminated and in October 1948 the air soared the first rocket of the Soviet production of R-1, although it actually continued to be a copy of V-2: the distance and altitude of its flight does not exceed the indicators of the German model, but the deviation from the target amounted to a mere 1.5 kilometers. In the same year, Korolev began to develop R-2, which was to overcome the 600-kilometre point range.
after 10 years of intensive and fruitful work since the first of the Soviet launch of V-2 design Bureau of the Queen presented to the publicspine two-stage Intercontinental ballistic missile R-7. She was destined, on 4 October 1957 put into orbit the first artificial Earth satellite.
With each new prototype Soviet rocket less resembled the V-2. The R-7 is actually nothing like a German predecessor: they differed in size, flight characteristics, fuel types, government. It was a completely different, more complex level of technology. However, as said Boris Chertok, the story of the creation of the first satellite – has a history of rockets, the German had a beginning.
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