Weapons 13/02/20 Why in the USSR copied the American “flying fortress” B-29
Copy a complex multi-component device is more trouble than gain, because different countries have different standards, the composition of the materials, and even system of measurement. But in the history of the Russian aircraft industry was several attempts to copy foreign aircraft.
Stalin’s Order: to copy thoroughly
the American B-29 bomber called the “flying swarmrobot”. At a speed of 600 km/h and a ceiling of 12 km, where you do not get anti-aircraft guns, it could carry bombs weighing up to 6 tons. When the involvement of all firing points around the plane created a fire sphere.
in the Spring of 1945 on the territory of the USSR were four such aircraft – shot down while bombing the Japanese troops in Manchuria, they made a forced landing on the Soviet far Eastern airports.
In June, Stalin summoned Tupolev and instructed to make a plane – an exact copy of the B-29. Aircraft responded that he sees the main problem in the coordination of the production of individual components and assemblies. He understood that almost everything – from the nuts to the targeting system – you’ll have to do it again, and in this process engaged the industry of several ministries. “Then, they will have to master these products. Another way we have” thought Stalin.
the Tupolev was given a broad mandate and a period of two years. From the Far East, three B-29 was delivered to Moscow. One aircraft was dismantled, the other used as reference, and the third as a trainer.
Each module was studied for its team of engineers. Details weighed, measured, photographed and subjected to spectral analysis to determine the composition of the material. More than 50 research institutes, departments and enterprises were carried out up an individual node or part. Due to this complex configuration, the new aircraft, together with the name of Tu-4 was nicknamed “Kibiciny bomber.”
the First problem faced by the designers, – other measurement system. Any bolt, screw or rivet did not correspond to the metric format. So, case thickness 1/16 inch turned into a surreal 1,5875 mm. In the metallurgical industry simply did not have such rolling mills. And although one of the bombers was a set of technical documentation, it is not highly facilitated the work of designers.
the Order of Stalin “copy” was understood literally. Reached ridiculous. So, in a single wing found little hole. According to experts, neither the aerodynamics nor the strength, she is not affected and is likely to have an accident. But the team’s “reason” was not, therefore, a tiny hole was made in the scheme of the wing and carefully vysvetlilas at the factory with a thin drill bit.
similarly, hermolis inside of the plane was painted green, and not until the end. Perhaps the American worker over the paint, but all in germanaz topolewski copies okrashivanie not exactly the same.
in addition, the cockpit was added such “bourgeois” elements stand for sodas and ashtray, although Soviet pilots Smoking in flight was strictly forbidden.
But the biggest embarrassment came with the system “friend or foe”. Without hesitation, the engineers copied American sensor detection unit, but then still realized that he did something wrong. But it was not the only difference from the model B-29.
The Tupolev plane has put domestic engines by combining them with carburetors, bearings, turbochargers from American bombers. Installed a more modern radio.
the traditional air parade in Tushino on 3 August 1947, three Tu-4 made a great impression, going over the stands at low level flight. “Everyone jumped to their feet, began to shout “Hurrah!” and waving his arms, recalled L. Lazarev, in his book “Touching the sky”. But friendlNY the crowd cry was instantly muffled by the roar of engines”.
in All there were about 1,200 aircraft Tu-4. Serial production lasted until 1952. Experience copy of the American bomber contributed to promoting and introducing more modern technology in the Soviet aircraft industry.
Sabre F-86: the second clone – lumpy
First attempt to copy foreign aircraft was so successful that it was willing to continue the experiment. Sample was taken jet fighter Sabre F-86. The work was entrusted to OKB-1, headed by Kondrashov.
the Sample plane shot down over Korea, was delivered to Russia in June 1952, and on July 18 issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the CPSU Central Committee “About copying and building on the existing in the Soviet Union samples of jet fighter Sabre F-86”.
However, it soon became clear that the MiG-15 equipped with more modern components and assemblies and structurally, the Russian fighter is not inferior to the American. In addition, the MiG-15 had much better rate of climb and could carry more weapons. And the Sabre engines was not the new design.
So after the death of Stalin, Bureau chief-1 fired, for the work to copy the fighter stopped. Of the technical solutions and design ideas have been used in aircraft: controlled stabilizer, radiolokatsionnye sight, the combustion of the ejection, etc.
In the 60-ies the main target scientific and technical intelligence was the supersonic airliner Concorde, a joint production of Britain and France. Operation for the extraction of the documentation of this miracle of technology was the code name “brünnhilde”.
Not without losses. So, in 1965, from France were deported Pavlov, designed as the representative of “Aeroflot”. He tried to carry by in the plane of the tube with drawings of modern radar systems and jet engines “Olympus”, is designed for Concorde.
the Development of a domestic supersonic airliner Tu-144 was carried out son of the famous aircraft designer Tupolev, A. A. Tupolev. His plane soared into the sky for a year before the Concorde, but externally both models are very similar: deltoid supporting plane movable nose portion. Specifications were also similar.
the Hunt for the Concorde lasted and then when the Tu-144 stopped flying. So, in 1973, the French stand of the air show in Le Bourget, the assistant Soviet air attache in Paris Mirocin stole the replacement part from the distributor system, fuel Concorde. The theft of highly sensitive node in the system that controls the flow of fuel, has not gone unnoticed – the hapless Lieutenant was expelled from the country.
a Copy of the American Boeing 747 Jumbo jet, the first jet called the Il-86 airliner with a wide fuselage. A transport aircraft Il-76 suspiciously similar to the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter. However, experience shows that it is easier to build yourself than to fit private industry under other people’s standards.
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