History 29/01/20 What the Germans were doing with the refugees from the siege of Leningrad
Almost from the first days of the siege of Leningrad, the civilian population of the city understood that to evacuate it without having “relations” very difficult. Not wanting to wait for starvation, some desperate people tried to cross the front line and go at the rear of the Germans.
“Refugees not to accept”
In Soviet historiography described the question that with the approach of the Germans, Leningrad was flooded with refugees from the suburbs – Peterhof, Pushkin, Strelna. On the opposite stream sent from Leningrad in the direction of the German positions, from time to time was little is known. According to researcher Raymond Cartier, this was during the Nuremberg trials mentioned Alfred Jodl, chief of Staff of the operational management of the Supreme command of the Wehrmacht. According to him, the commander of army group “North” Wilhelm von Leeb reported that the flow of civilian refugees from the besieged city trying to survive in the German trenches. Von Leeb had complained to management that these people have nothing to feed, and generally take care of them it is impossible.
“the Fuehrer immediately ordered not to receive refugees and push them back into the enemy’s territory,” said Raymond Cartier.
apparently, we are talking about the Directive of the operational command of the Wehrmacht of the destruction of Moscow, Leningrad and other cities of the Soviet Union from October 7, 1941.
“All persons attempting to leave the city in the direction of our lines to be driven away by fire”, — the document says. Harsh measures justified by military necessity:
“Not allowed to German soldiers risked his life to save Russian cities from fire or to feed the population of these cities at the expense of the German homeland.”
the Exact number of those who tried to escape from hunger, going to the Germans, it is unlikely that it will ever be known. But it is evidentOh, it wasn’t one hundred people. For example, on October 13, the chief of the intelligence section of the Wehrmacht once again reported that “refugees from Leningrad flocked to the German positions.” Back again sounded the order to use weapons.
“Colonel General Küchler personally explained to command of the 50th army corps, that the troops should prevent the exit of refugees from the city and determined to use the weapon. The order to shoot at women and children preceded the indication of long hermetic environment,” — said the German historian Johannes Curter.
In a double vise
the Hardness of the Germans was due to the fact that they became aware of the activities of the NKVD, verbovka workers at Leningrad enterprises to gather intelligence in the German rear. Sometimes used even schoolchildren.
“Since the end of September, the “special sections” of the NKVD at large enterprises moved on to recruitment agents for intelligence activities in the rear of German front lines and making them available to the red Army. Preferred young people who have to call on German field kitchens compassion for yourself, so that when the occasion to perform their task of surveillance”, – stated in the report on the situation in Leningrad and activities in connection with this asfcrypt.
As you can see from the document, the hungry Leningraders, contrary to the orders of the command, found sympathy among ordinary soldiers of the Wehrmacht. Some refugees seem to have been made (especially in September). Based on their testimony, the Nazis were reports about what is happening in the besieged city. But the Germans preferred to Leningrad fled “to the interior of Russia.” According to them, a small number of the population was to facilitate the management and operation of occupied areas. After October 1941, according to Johannes Cortera, refugees practically disappeared. This contributed to the stabilization of the Leningrad front and the erection of numerous trenches, minefields and obstacles, Thus, the possibilities of illegal pokinuti starving the city from the civilian population left. Its not released, and the Germans were not admitted to the occupied territory. In such conditions the people of Leningrad showed “forced heroism”, and those who were not capable of it – on the path of crime, up to cannibalism.
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