History 09/01/20 What the classics of Russian literature published by the Nazis in the Great Patriotic
during the great Patriotic war in the dark offices of the Third Reich plans for the future relegation of Slavs to the level of animals. However, for the current success of the occupation, the Nazis needed to support the visibility of cultural life in the occupied territories of the USSR. So they made for the people not only propagandistic literature, but also printed classical Russian poetry.
“Tales of Pushkin” in the “brown book,”
the Leaders of the Nazi party were indifferent to the poetry. Adolf Hitler in his youth he rhymed line and was friends with the poet Nietzschean Stefan Gheorghe. And the main propagandist of the Reich Joseph Goebbels loved German romantic poetry and collected rare editions of Heinrich Heine, although he was by blood a Jew.
However, the occupiers realized that the imposition of yesterday’s Soviet citizens of German culture actually anything but rejection, not cause. Was required to justify the words of Hitler, spoken in the first day of the war, that “never the German people are not nurtured in itself hostile feelings against the peoples of Russia”. In the “cultural work” the Nazis had trusted advisers – born in the Russian Empire of the Baltic Germans, familiar with the Russian language and literature. They oversaw the publishing activity of Russian collaborators. In the occupied territories was produced not too much fiction, but some of the book of poems was published.
From a purely pragmatic purposes, the Germans made the publication of “Pushkin’s Tales”, this book was perfect as a “gift from the führer” Russian students at Christmas and other holidays. Promoted the work of the poet, and among adults. According to researcher Olga Tereshina, the authors of the newspaper “For the Motherland”, published in the Pskov region, convincedand readers that Pushkin’s “little tragedy” “the Avaricious knight” has anti-Semitic connotations (referring to the image of the Jewish moneylender Solomon).
the attitude of the Germans to the heritage of “the sun of Russian poetry” has been highly controversial. In 1940, in the midst of “Soviet-German friendship”, in the cinema of the Third Reich showed the film “the Postmaster” is a very correct adaptation of the Pushkin story “the stationmaster”. However, the Pushkin Museum in St. Michael during the occupation looting.
From Nekrasova to Yesenin
Russian poetry was represented in many of the collaborationist Newspapers and magazines. In Berlin published the literary magazine “Our friend,” the literary pages were in the local periodicals. The editors, in the service of the Nazis, placed in Newspapers poems by Russian classics such as Nikolay Nekrasov and Alexey Koltsov. They could print even Soviet poetry, if it has, of course, there was nothing ideologically unacceptable. For example, Anna Akhmatova, who survived the war in evacuation in Tashkent, probably, did not know that read across the front. Sometimes the works were subjected to gross alterations, as happened with the poem by Konstantin Simonov “Wait for me”.
One of the main centers of Russian culture in the occupied territories can be called Odessa. Here hosted not the Germans and the Romanians, so orders were freer. Publication of periodicals engaged in private businesses. They released 4 of the magazine, published a small library of Russian poetry. Banned in the Soviet Union, the authors used a demand of the population.
“First published Gumilev, Gumilev did not go and then to the Finance program to provide and bring themselves out of this financial crisis, Yesenin published<...> which went more successfully than Gumilev,” says historian Boris Ravdin (quoted from the website svoboda.org).
paradoxically, the occupiers brought to the Russian reader a “breath of freedom”. However, art the pearls were hard to notice among the hundreds of base pamphlets, filled with anti-Semitic and anti-Soviet propaganda. In addition, the Russian people, who could occupation to afford to buy books and magazines, it was very little.
© Russian Seven
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