Had planned to give Gorbachev Kaliningrad Germany in 1990

History 07/01/20 globallookpress.zaplanirovan whether Gorbachev to give Kaliningrad Germany in 1990

the Kaliningrad region has always been perceived as an integral part of the Soviet Union and Germany never declared her their rights. However, in Soviet history was the episode when the region was hypothetically could be part of Germany.

the history of the issue

About the incorporation of königsberg into the USSR, Stalin spoke in 1943 at the Tehran conference, when the fate of Nazi Germany was already evident. But then the allies did not come to a decision. Officially transfer to the Soviet Union Koenigsberg and the adjacent area was decorated in Potsdam in July 1945 (the remaining two-thirds of East Prussia was ceded to Poland). By this time most of the German population (some 13 million people) left the USSR controlled the territory and moved to other regions of Germany.

In April 1946 on the map of the USSR appeared Königsberg region within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). This name lasted until July 4, 1946, when Koenigsberg was renamed Kaliningrad. By October 1948 from the Kaliningrad region to Germany was deported last 100 thousand ethnic Germans, and their place was taken mainly by inhabitants of the Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian SSR.

the question of the status of the Kaliningrad region was signing between the USSR and Germany Agreement on the recognition of the principle of inviolability of postwar borders which obliged West Germany to abandon claims for lost at the end of the Second world war, the territory. The press often POPs up is that the USSR allegedly rented in Germany the Konigsberg region for 49 years, but the documents do not appear.

Weird thing

Not so long ago the authoritative German magazine Der Spiegel has published material, gde stated that in the summer of 1990, the Soviet Union initiated the question of the return of the Kaliningrad region of Germany. It is noteworthy that at this point during the process of German unification, which was the first revision of the borders established in the post-war Europe.

the Authors note, referring to a certain telegram from the German Embassy in Moscow dated 2 June 1990. It was reported that Soviet major General Geli Batenin said a West German diplomat about the interest in the negotiations on the Soviet part of East Prussia. The vols supposedly in conversation with the head of the political referendum of the Embassy Joachim Arnima drew attention to the problem of the Northern part of East Prussia which may become relevant in the short or long term.

the Vols, according to Der Spiegel, called the Kaliningrad oblast region backward in all respects, neglected villages and meadows, stinking like a sewer the river Pregolya. The German diplomat said that difficulties with the development of the former German territories is a problem exclusively of the Soviet Union. Arnim once again outlined the position in Bonn, which meant only the unification of Germany, the GDR and Berlin.

it is possible that German diplomat to the Soviet military was very suspicious. Helmut Kohl and Mikhail Gorbachev considered not picking up the German lands, but only the unification of the German people being on different sides of the borders. In the Kaliningrad region of ethnic Germans in fact remained and, therefore, it could go only on the territorial increment – it smacked of blatant revanchism, on which the international community could not agree.

on 12 September 1990 in Moscow signed a Treaty of Sovereignty, which provided for the restoration of German unity and the final “the full sovereignty of Germany over its internal and external Affairs”.

Gorbachev’s reaction to the material of Der Spiegel. Former Soviet President noted that in the absence of other sensations, the publication threw a “dead cat”, attributing to the Soviet leadership that what it is not reasoned.

Looking East

Some experts believe that Germany, at least part of its establishment, left no question about the return of the native German territories of East Prussia. Doctor of legal Sciences Andrei shavayev and veteran intelligence Stanislav Lekarev in the book “Intelligence and counterintelligence. Fragments the world’s experience of history and theory” believe that this will be done in the framework of a policy for a progressive transformation of the EU into a single state of a confederal-Federal nature, where the new management structure will be led primarily by the German representatives.

the President of the European information centre on human rights in Vienna, Harry Moray drew attention to one detail: Germany, 70 years of living without a Constitution – it replaces the Basic law, temporarily adopted in 1949. Why? “Germany has not yet gathered all the earth, and therefore conceptually not United” – meets Moray.

Some members of the Bundestag act with own projects of development of the Kaliningrad region, the implementation of which, in the opinion of analysts, can lead to the Germanization of the region and even the weakening of Moscow’s influence on its enclave. In particular, we propose the creation of in the region of a condominium of Russia, Germany, Poland and Lithuania, the development of initiatives to resettle in Kaliningrad oblast of the Russian Germans, the establishment of ties with the descendants of Germans who lived in East Prussia, the demilitarization of the region and its integration with the EU.

In 2017 faction of the national-conservative party “Alternative for Germany” has moved from words to action and made a proposal to restore passenger rail service between Berlin and Kaliningrad oblast.

However, the head of Department of Institute of history of Ukraine national Academy of Sciences, Stanislav Kulchytsky sure that Berlin will never make claims relative to Kaliningrad oblAsti, but does not exclude that in the future if you change the political situation in Europe and Russia, this area can increase to Germany in the same way as the GDR United with West Germany.

too much

Many are wondering how would the Kaliningrad if he still remained a part of Germany? Imagine that immediately after the war Stalin refused claims to Konigsberg – probably today we beheld entered another city. The USSR systematically destroyed everything that had to do with German history, reshaping the former Konigsberg on the Soviet model. Obviously Germany would undertake to restore the pre-war architectural appearance of the capital of East Prussia.

it is Enough to compare Kaliningrad, the small Polish town of gołdap located 3 kilometres from the Russian border, which was part of German East Prussia. And he and others were in fact razed to the ground in the last months of the war. But the municipality of Goldap, in contrast to the authorities of Kaliningrad, have decided to recreate the historic centre, adapting it to the needs of the modern city. Today it is a cosy European town with carefully restored German Church, houses and estates. In Kaliningrad, only a few places reminiscent of the atmosphere of the old Koenigsberg.

Another question is how to develop the social, economic and geopolitical situation, enter Kaliningrad oblast part of Germany in 1990. Probably we would have witnessed a mass Exodus of Russian-speaking population and the resettlement of ethnic Germans here, and the remaining residents would be subjected to discrimination, which is often observed in relation to immigrants from the former Soviet republics, who moved to Germany.

Russia in the face of departed Germany in Kaliningrad region would have lost a powerful economic lever. It is no secret that this region has undeniable advantages, as it has an advantageous position at the intersection of main transit cargo flows from East to North-West.

But for Russia much more important military-strategic importance of Kaliningrad oblast, which is the extreme Western Outpost of our country, providing the presence of Russian Navy in the Baltic. For NATO, which could place your troops in the Baltic States, Kaliningrad oblast would not be such an important region in military terms, but for Russia the lack of the enclave in the Baltic would mean a serious reduction in the defense at the Western borders.

Many experts are of the opinion that the Kaliningrad region could become a major burden for Germany in the event of a merger. This applies both to the FRG and the GDR, and to the United state. In the German press met figures in Euro 100 billion – as analysts say would cost integration of the Kaliningrad oblast part of Germany. For a country with serious internal problems is an excessive burden.

Taras Repin

© Russian Seven

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