History 19/01/20 As veterans awards distinguished tylovikov
during the great Patriotic war, all the inhabitants of the Soviet Union in varying degrees, participated in the struggle against the Nazi invaders. Most men of military age fought at the front, but there were those who for various reasons remained in the rear. They, too, received orders, medals and decorations for labour achievements or meritorious service. As a rule, these awards can be determined: the person participated in actual combat or not.
In the book “Auxiliary historical disciplines” (Moscow, 2009 edition), which was jointly written by Galina Leontieva, Paul Shorin Vladimir Kobrin said that in 1941-1945 the Soviet leadership has established several awards to soldiers of the red army, participated in actual battles. And for the distinguished senior officers appeared orders of Suvorov, Kutuzov, Bogdan Khmelnitsky and Alexander Nevsky. The heads of operations of strategic importance, received the order of Victory.
“Along with the officer’s orders were established and a soldier the reward of personal valour in battle: the order of Glory of three degrees (1943), the awarding of which was carried out sequentially from the third degree to the first. The order of Glory could only get privates and sergeants (in aviation also Junior lieutenants). Orange-black ribbon of the order of Glory for coloring identical to St. George, this order was revived the tradition of “soldier George”,” wrote G. A. Leont’eva, and P. A. Shorin and V. B. Kobrin.
Another award that was presented to these veterans, was a medal “For military merit”. It was founded by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 17 October 1938 together with the medal “For courage”. Both awards were handed to the soldiers and officers of the red army, for heroism and courage in battle with the enemy of the Soviet Union.
Ansiklopedical Handbook, “Symbols, shrines and awards of the Russian Empire” (Moscow, 2004 edition) prepared for publication by the authors: Aleksandr Kuznetsov, Balyazin Voldemar, Nadezhda Soboleva and Alexander Kazakevich. They noted that the medal “For military merit” and “For courage” were the most massive frontline awards in the years of the great Patriotic war. The first of them in 1941-1945 received more than three million people, the second – more than four million.
of Course, most citizens of the USSR, awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union in the difficult years of the war were soldiers, sailors or airmen who commit their exploits at the front. With the title they were awarded a medal “gold star”, established on 1 August 1939. By the beginning of the great Patriotic war, it was awarded to 626 people, and in time of war, heroes of the Soviet Union were more than 11 thousand citizens of the USSR.
Who remained in the rear
for anybody not a secret that the veterans who returned home after 9 may 1945, with a fair amount of contempt applies to their peers, who “served in the rear” and the trench smelled of dust. Despite the fact that many logisticians work honestly, bringing their efforts for the common victory over Nazi Germany.
From call to the front was released:
party leaders of various levels;
Director of factories whose products were of strategic importance;
specialists without whom it was impossible to do in the rear.
the railroad that provided transportation of essential goods;
artists, working on the ideological front;
scientists whose development can give the competitive advantages of the USSR;
prosecutors and other law enforcement agencies;
officials of the NKVD, including camp guards and prison guards.
in addition, the logisticians often called those who were in the red army, but served in administrative units. That is, it was Pixareat at the headquarters or military intendant, for example.
For labor and defense
Most residents of the USSR, remaining in the rear who selflessly worked to provide the soldiers of the red army with food, uniforms, weapons and ammunition. For them was established the medal “For valiant labour in the great Patriotic war 1941-1945”, which was awarded to workers, collective farmers, engineers, scientists, artists, leaders of party and trade Union organizations. More than 16 million Soviet citizens were honored with this high award.
Many people who did not serve in the red army, participated in the defense of their hometowns from Nazi invaders. They built fortifications and fortifications, putting out fires that arose after the air raids, participated in the activities of air defense, cared for the sick and wounded, supplying food for people and food, etc. And often people did all of the above with the risk of his own life.
So December 22, 1942, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a decision to reward the participants of such events special medals “For defense of Leningrad” “For defence of Sevastopol” “For defence of Odessa” “For defence of Stalingrad”. In the ensuing battles to this list were added the medal “For defense of Kiev”, “For defense of Moscow”, “For defense of Soviet Arctic” and “For defense of Caucasus”.
Employees of the Gulag
the number of people who were not called to the front were the camp guards, prison guards and other employees of the NKVD. Since these units during the war years experienced serious shortage of staff, their leadership sought to attract and retain specialists in a variety of ways, including generously giving various orders, medals and departmental rewards.p>
the Book “the GULAG (Main administration of camps). 1917-1960” was published in Moscow in 1997. Its from archival documents made by A. I. Kokurin and N. In. Petrov, a scientific editor was made by V. N. Shostakovsky. Among other things, this publication contains biographical information on various leaders and prison camp of NKVD units, which indicated where each of them served in the war and what awards he received at this time.
for Example, Basil Barabanov – head of the Saratov correctional labor camps, who led on September 21, 1942, North-Pechora NKVD WHITTLE – was awarded the order of red banner of Labor, order of the red Star, order of the red banner, order of Lenin and the order of the Patriotic war II degree.
Andrew Boyarsky, who served from December 16, 1942, the assistant chief of the Investigative unit of the Transport Department of the NKVD of the USSR had to its credit the order of Lenin, the order “badge of Honor” and the order of the red banner.
And John Long appointed 13 September 1941, Deputy chief of the NKVD administration of the Khabarovsk Krai, during the war, has received three orders of red Star, order of the red banner of Labor, order of the red banner, and in 1947 the order of the Patriotic war I degree.
in Addition to these top awards employee of the Gulag could wear the honorary badge “Honored worker of NKVD”, which was established by departmental order of November 6, 1940. This document, signed personally by Beria, quoted in his book “”the Bloody dwarf” against the Leader of the people. Conspiracy Yezhov” (Moscow, 2010 edition) candidate of historical Sciences Leonid Naumov.
“he was Awarded the sign “Honored worker of NKVD” are examples of exemplary performance of their duties. They must be selfless devotees of the party of Lenin – Stalin, vigilant and merciless in the struggle against the enemies of the Soviet state”, – was stated in the above order.
Other categories of line – artists, writers, scientists, railway workers, production workers – also had their departmental insignia and awards. According to him, the soldiers were often able to accurately determine: fought or not. In addition, during the great Patriotic some war medals usually given for purely peaceful achievement.
the author of the book “100 great awards” (Moscow, 2006 edition) Nadezhda ionina noted that the order of Lenin was awarded since 1930 for outstanding achievements in the field of agriculture, industry, construction, trade, transportation, and defense Councils. And the order of the red banner was established in September 1928 “to mark exceptional service to the Union in the field of production, research activities, public or community service”.
Both of these awards were not intended for soldiers, as the “badge of Honor”, handing with November, 1935, for high performance, innovations, achievements in social, scientific, sports or cultural sphere, as well as for achievements in the diplomatic field.
was among the awards of the great Patriotic war and those who were given both for military and for peaceful achievements. For example, the order of the red banner was awarded not only people, but also military units, ships, state and public organizations. Army units to be awarded such a high honor, proudly called the red and the names of civilian agencies added the phrase “order of the red banner”.
According to N. And. Of Jonah, the order of the red Star, established in 1930, too, was given to both military and civilians. It was possible to obtain not only “for the outstanding activity that contributed to the major success of our troops in time of war”, but for deeds committed in a peaceful environment, improve the defense capabilities of our country and outstanding scientific and technical inventions.
more Complicated is the situation with the order of the Patriotic war I and II degrees. It was established specially for the citizens of the USSR who have distinguished themselves in the battles against the Nazi invaders. Moreover, in the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 20 may 1942 that the new onhail can be honored not only the soldiers of the red army and Navy, but the partisans and NKVD, whose actions contributed to the success of the Soviet troops.
This interpretation is consistent with how these veterans and employees of the Gulag. For example, the order of the Patriotic war was awarded the aforementioned employees of the NKVD – Vasily Drums and Ivan Long.
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