History 31/12/19 What treasures went to the Germans after the capture of Crimea
the Last days of October 1941 for the residents of the Crimea was filled with suspense. It was clear that the Germans will go to the Peninsula and to leave it is impossible. A lot of people, especially the elderly who survived the German occupation of the Crimea in 1918, consoled myself and friends, saying that German — he simply likes order because of the atrocities and looting will not. But expectations were far from reality.
Not had time to get
back in September among Crimeans to experience all the delights of the bombing of the Luftwaffe and watching the radio with the advent of Hitler’s army, still had a strong belief that the Peninsula is “not looking.” As if in confirmation, the authorities do not hurry with the evacuation. Whether not to create panic, and maybe because all the forces were thrown to more. So the situation was the same and the evacuation of cultural heritage – exhibits remained in their places, and from Museum storage not serving trucks.
However, the most valuable employees of museums, as if anticipating bad, tried to pack or at least to prepare for sending. In the Central Museum of Taurida still remained part of the documentation for exported things. And, surprisingly, some of them a few things from ethnographic collections, two vases in the Chinese style, including evacuees, are still kept in the Museum. Perhaps they just left at the last moment.
October 8, 1941 the people’s Commissariat worker comrade shingle took in the Central Museum of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic (then known as the Republican Museum of local lore) and forty-one duly executed and sealed the box, one copper cannon and one mortar of times of the defense of Sevastopol.
All that stuff is surrendered to Alexander the Shingle “for evacuation from the Crimea”. Forty-one, even the impressive size, the box is only part of what could pack and prepare to aboutspravka from Simferopol, where’s going to include German troops — and it happened less than two weeks. Specific instructions on what you need to evacuate, it was not, therefore, each of the leaders of the Crimean museums decided it yourself.
Before the war the Central Museum of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic had a rich ethnographic collection was gathered expedition, toured the various regions of the Peninsula. Every thing was unique, unlike any other. A large part of this collection, 1193 units left in those boxes. To the same fit and a collection of ancient coins, 14972 pieces. Many ancient Greek ceramics, sculpture, a piece of gold and bronze ornaments found during the excavations of Scythian Neapolis. Still — rare books of scientific library, 3837 volumes.
But Alexander shingle was carrying “cargo” is much more precious than the boxes of the Museum, as he worked in the Commissariat of education of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic, he was assigned to accompany the train with the children from the home. Children he drove to the North Caucasus in one piece. And the boxes under his supervision arrived to Armavir. What happened next is unknown: whether it had been bombed railway warehouse, where you put the load, or the train. Survived if at least part of the collections, remains a mystery. After the war, Alexander shingle on the evacuation of the Museum tried not to remember: “bodies” long “worked” with him, but in the end no charges are not filed.
Sad was the fate of the Simferopol art gallery. After the war, from all the pre-war collection survived 77 works. Fortunately, most of the collection survived – two-thirds of them before the war was transferred for exhibitions in other museums. The official version is that the boxes with paintings died 27 Oct 1941 in port of Kerch during the bombing. However, after the war we came up with one of the paintings — “the Model” Repin. It for Museum acquired in 1947, and to admire her visitors Simferopol art Museum. The fate of the rest of the collection is still unknown.
a little Something from the grasping hands of the invaders managed to hide. History Museum of the recesses described in the memoirs of Alexander Polkanova, who took on the eve of the occupation of Simferopol as Director of the Museum, the document is in the collections of the State archive of the Republic of Crimea. In the secret there were three: the Director, curator Deutsch and laboratory of Globenko. “Staged in the Museum in barns and courtyard are five spacious crypts, wrote Alexander Polkanov. In some cases, had made a false wall out of plywood, whitewashed in a long corridor, two rooms in the wing were masked by the old greenhouse frames…”
Most of the content of the caches was a… statues and busts of Lenin and Stalin, as well as the bas-reliefs of the leaders, the plaster medallions with their image. Large statues laid in the shed on the floor gave them mountains of different stuff. However, it was in the recesses of the other exhibits — sketches brushes Samokish, paintings by Aivazovsky and Bogayevsky, antique porcelain and books, things of the departments of archeology and Ethnography.
the Nazis came to Simferopol on 2 November. And immediately went to the Museum — but not in order to look at the exposure.
“In November 1941, a separate group of German soldiers broke into the premises of the Museum and took… items of factory and artisanal production, including clothing dress, Museum inventory. In the same month, unknown to the German part was taken from the Museum allegedly for equipment officers ‘club wall clock antique, furniture of Karelian birch, furniture nut tree, furniture oak wood”. This is a quote from the act on the damage caused to the Central Museum of Tauris.
Then the robbery took a more organized manner. Schmidt, head of the Crimean group Einsatzstab Rosenberg (the unit, among other things, engaged in the export of property from occupied territory), was partial to antique furniture. A “representative of science” Professor of the archaeology of Stamppot selected the most outstanding archeologicalChia exhibits (not ignoring the articles of gold).
the SS Officer with a funny name Karasik and Director of the propaganda Department of the Mansa too thoroughly had a hand in the robbery of the Museum. The scientific library has lost approximately two thousand books, Germans were especially interested in the maps, work on the economy and Ethnography.
Values Packed in the Alupka Palace Museum, they were taken to the port and had to load on the ship “Armenia” — the very thing that sank, killing at least five thousand lives. Something of the exhibits there, in a warehouse in the port, was found by the Museum’s Director Stepan scoldin after the Germans came to Yalta. “As soon as I started working the office and organized a municipal office, I turned back with a request to allow me a trip to Yalta, to learn about the fate of the evacuated Museum values — he wrote later in his book “what silent lions.” — On a passing truck came to Yalta. The warehouse was opened wide. It was terrible to see: lay on the floor a few leaves, mashed into the ground with dirty boots. Of the 43 boxes, taken from the Museum, half looted completely.”
Later and Secondino managed to arrange in the Museum, hiding place, hiding from the Nazis with some value. But the Museum still robbed.
One of the most enigmatic stories of the Crimean Museum values — the missing “Golden suitcase”. It was kept 719 valuable objects from the Kerch Museum — basically, things from archaeological excavations of different years. Golden masks, bracelets, rings, medallions, coins, and more — the suitcase weighed 70 pounds. Julius Marty, the Museum’s Deputy Director for science, delivered the suitcase to Armavir, where deposited.
the Last known Keeper of the suitcase — Jacob Loboda, an employee of the state Bank. This burden along with the money he sent to the partisan unit, where he began to fight. But before the end of the war did not survive. Of the squad survived a few people, but to say anything could not: apparently, knew about the contents of only a few people. It may be valuable, but pressing on the detachment of the cargo wouldl is hidden, it is possible that even divided between the devoted to the mystery. After the war in the woods, where he acted partisan group, the kids found the gold buckle: as defined by the experts, the antique time. Description — from the collection of the Kerch Museum. She was in the “Golden suitcase”.
© Russian Seven
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