History 20/02/20 frame of фильма6 the worst death of Stalin polygon
the Stalinist era was marked by mass repression, the so-called “enemies of the people”. Many of them were sentenced to executions. As a rule, the relatives in these cases reported that persons sentenced to “ten years incommunicado”. The executed were buried in mass graves. Such burial had the status of special facilities. Detailed information about them came only in the last decade.
In the 20-ies of the last century in the Leninsky district of Moscow region a number of farms and facilities under the jurisdiction of the security organs. One of them was in the village of Kommunarka in the territory, where before the revolution was located mansion house, and later – summer residence of Stalin’s head of the state security service of Henry Berry.
the sensitive sites was a plot of 20 acres enclosed by high fence with barbed wire. Since 1937, down the nights began to take body shot in the Lubyanka, Lefortovo, Butyrka and Sukhanovskaya prison. There were rumors that the investigative prison in Sukhanivka to Kommunarka specially dug underground tunnel, to smuggle the corpses to Spezzano. According to one version, originally the project was supposed to bury the land in a hit list of employees of the OGPU. By the way, among them was Sam Berry. But later the territory was adapted for the burial of other “enemies of the people”, which was executed in a Moscow prison sentences “triples”.
According to the FSB, here lie about 10-14 thousand prisoners, but the names of most of them unidentified, found out the identity of only about 5 thousand people. Among them – the writers Boris Pilnyak, Artem Cheerful, Bruno Jasieński, members of the government of Mongolia, the leaders of the Comintern.
unlike Kommunarka, where they buried most of the “elite”, the Butovo polygon near Moscow deReuni Butovo organized on the site of the former landlords ‘ estates Drozhzhino and in force since 1935, was originally intended for mere mortals. Most buried here were farmers from the surrounding suburban villages, often arrested on false pretexts, in the article “Counterrevolutionary propaganda”. Sometimes shot with their entire families to perform the dreaded “plan order”. Among the buried were also workers, employees and prisoners Dmitlaga (approximately one third of the total): scientists, clergymen, cultists, thieves-recidivists. Another category of disabled. Because blind, deaf and crippled people were rarely capable of physical labor, and so they would have to waste prison gruel, after a formal medical examination was just sentenced to “capital punishment”.
According to the documentary sources it was established that from August 1937 to 19 October 1938 on the territory Butovo committed 20 765 executions.
Today it is a memorial cemetery in the vicinity of St. Petersburg. From August 1937 to 1954 it was the sensitive sites where there were mass graves of executed prisoners: Leningrad, Novgorod, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians and even foreigners – poles, Germans, Swedes, Norwegians, Italians. During the period in Levashovo buried about 45 thousand people.
Today you can see monuments to repressed each individual nationality. And yet the monuments of the representatives of various religious faiths and even repressed deaf. The most famous objects of the memorial – a monument to the “Moloch of totalitarianism” and “the Bell of memory.”
This forest tract is located 20 km from the Karelian town of Povenets. This area was buried the shot in the years 1934-1939. Their corpses dumped in the pit. All of these pits was subsequently discovered 236. It is estimated that in Sandarmokh buried about 3.5 thousand inhabitants Karelia, more than 4.5 thousand prisoners Belbaltlag and 1111 prisoners of the Solovki special purpose camp.
In the forest tract near the village of pivovarikha near Irkutsk in the early 1930-ies was organized subordinate to the Irkutsk NKVD sovkhoz “May”. Next placed giving the NKVD and summer camp for their children. In 1937, inside the state farm site staged Spezzano, where they began to bury shot by sentence of “triples” of the residents of Irkutsk and its environs. The sentences were usually executed in Irkutsk, in the cellars of the NKVD Department for Litvinova str., 13, as well as in the inner prison of the NKVD (street Barricades, 63). Night the corpses in the truck were taken to Pivovarikha.
In our days in the village during the garden work, local residents still find human bones, shoes, buttons. According to reports, there were laid to rest about 15 thousand people.
near the village of Yagunovskiy (today Kemerovo region) from October 1937 to may 1938, was located the so-called “death camp”, where they buried the victims of the Great terror. According to witnesses, the bodies of the executed were thrown into ditches, and their clothes burned. To the local residents heard the gunshots and then through the village flew shreds of burned clothing.
Today on the site of the camp there is a memorial chapel.
© Russian Seven
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