History 30/01/20 Reparations of Germany for occupation of the Soviet Union: how many Germans are not underpaid
the Soviet Union forgave Germany a large part of the damages incurred during the Nazi occupation of the country. Despite this, Berlin has not paid reparations to be specified volume. Talking about this Russian historians. In Germany, of course, have a different opinion.
the German reparations Question was solved by the countries of the winners at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences in February and August 1945. In Yalta, Stalin made a proposal to determine the amount of recoverable damages at $ 20 billion, of which 50% must be paid to the USSR, and the rest divided between the allies – France, Britain and the United States. The amount is not exorbitant. For comparison, the supply of allied lend-lease was estimated at $ 11 billion. It was assumed that the Soviet Union will receive additionally from the Western zones of occupation, approximately 25% of dismantled equipment.
Concrete form the subject of reparations received in Potsdam. It was decided that the damages to the Soviet Union will be at the expense of the Eastern zone of occupation in Germany, and German assets in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria and Finland. The reparation claims of Poland, the Soviet Union offered to meet their share of 15%. Other countries owed the winners were to receive from the Western zones of occupation.
Everyone knew that Germany was awarded the sparing regime of reparation payments. Insisted Stalin, as he was well aware that excessive sanctions in the First world war undermined the German economy and eventually led to the popularity of the national socialist ideas. The Soviet leader did not want to prevent the emergence of another Reich. The main task was to destroy the economy, and military potential of Germany.
And mAthe material and manpower
About reparations caused by Germany to the detriment of the Soviet government began to think more in the midst of war. So, in September 1944, the state planning Commission sent to the ministries request that they make a list of what they would be interested in the German industry. Subsequently, these issues were dealt with by the newly established Special Committee for the restoration of the national economy. By may 1945 as reparation payments from Germany were exported capital equipment, property and materials with a volume of over 550 thousand tonnes. It is primarily about plants, machinery and stock.
According to the Main trophy management in the Soviet Union from Germany has arrived about 400 thousand cars, 2885 factories, power plants 96, 340 thousand of machine tools, electric motors of 200 thousand, 1 million 335 thousand head of cattle, 2.3 million tons of grain, 1 million tons of vegetables, 500 tons of fat and sugar, 20 million liters of alcohol, 16 tons of tobacco. In addition, the Soviet astronomers got telescopes of the Observatory of the Humboldt University, the subway – Berlin subway cars, the Navy – cruise ships.
Historians have not yet taken to assess how German reparations contributed to the restoration of the Soviet economy, primarily because of the lack of comprehensive statistics on volumes exported to the USSR of material values and also true evaluations caused by Germany to damage in the war. It is important to note that not all German equipment was functioning, the big problem was the lack of qualified personnel able to work on it. However, it is still obvious that German reparations have accelerated the process of revival of the Soviet economy.
it is Very important for the Soviet defense industry was the use of German military technology. As noted Soviet scientist Boris Chertok, one of the closest associates of Sergei Korolev, our country has taken a number of rocket technology and documentation, which gave a strong impetus to the development of Soviet rocketry. A great contribution to this delo made by German scientists, brought to the USSR along with their families. There is a theory that and to create the famous AK-47 was used by the German developments. In any case, the German designer Hugo Schmeisser some time worked in the Soviet Union.
the German workforce along with material goods has become an integral part of the reparations. In a catastrophic demography that had for Soviet fundamental importance. The work of German prisoners of war to restore war-ravaged economy, primarily cities, was used until 1955.
in 1950-ies the specialists from the GDR has estimated the total amount of German reparations to the Soviet Union for almost 16 billion dollars, which today is equivalent to $170 billion This is approximately 23% of the entire GDP of Germany at the end of 1940-ies and 60% of GDP GDR. As a result, the potential of the East German industry was thoroughly undermined. In fact, until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the GDR was not able to recover from the repair of impact on the economy, which, according to historians, was one of the major reasons that contributed to the unification of Germany.
In 2005, the Polish Institute of international Affairs presented his data on reparations, which received a Secular Union. The numbers were much more modest than the East German analysts 3,081 billion, of which the NDP was allocated 228 million (about 7.5%). Reparations from the East German zone of occupation were paid in the USSR until 1953, until he was terminated by agreement between the governments of the USSR and the GDR.
the Sum of 20 billion dollars, which was announced by Stalin, did not appear in any official documents. The final figures were going to fix the peace Treaty with Germany, however, after four years, the country that fought the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist, and in 1955 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree “On termination of state of war between the Soviet Union and Germany”.
According to the estimates of the Frenchon economist A. Claude, the total cost of the damage to the Soviet Union was much more than the amount announced by the Soviet leader – at least $128 billion in the pre-war prices. This, according to the Frenchman, about half of the total amount of damage inflicted on the Nazi regime all countries combined. Soviet scientists, in particular economist Nikolai Voznesensky, believed that reparations deliveries in Germany has not exceeded 4% of the total cost of the damage incurred by the Soviet Union.
the authors of the work “Military economy of the USSR during Patriotic war” estimated that direct damage from the destruction of property of citizens and companies amounted to 679 billion rubles, or 128 billion dollars, which is consistent with the findings of Claude. However, indirect damage to the Soviet economy, according to the same book, exceeded $ 485 billion. It includes defective work of enterprises, loss of labor, the value of the confiscated items of production, and more.
the Complexity of the calculation
And yet, in the moment, to accurately determine a figure that reflects the real extent of German reparations, both received and outstanding hard. This is largely due to the traditional secrecy of the USSR ministries and the confusion that was happening in the departments involved in export of German assets. For example, one scrupulously have not counted how many brought from Germany many trophy brigade. This whole process gradually acquired the chaotic character.
From Germany to the Soviet Union was carrying everything – artwork, books, Housewares, furniture, carpets, dishes, jewelry, cars, motorcycles. Many values were in the museums and art galleries, but many ended up in private collection of generals and the civil officials. According to some, until 1952 from Germany to the USSR were removed to 900 thousand pieces of art. Difficult to even imagine how much all this is appreciated. The whereabouts of many of the exhibits probably install and fail.
on the other hand the German voiceka was taken from the Soviet Union a huge number of works of art and other valuables. Not all of it was returned home. museums. The USSR and the Russian Federation have made many attempts to return looted by the Nazis during the occupation, but it had only local success. The authorities of the Federal Republic of Germany declare that the return of “displaced” from the territory of the former USSR property is impossible, because it is in private ownership.
Apparently Berlin is completely closed and the issue of reparation payments Moscow. The German Ministry of Finance in 2000 prepared a report, according to which the victorious took reparations unilaterally, and regulatory records on this subject do not exist. That is why, from the point of view of the Ministry is not able to record the exact amount of the German payments to Russia.
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