History 08/02/20 the Main “Troll” of Soviet power: how Daniil Kharms brought the KGB into a frenzy

Writer, poet and playwright Daniil Kharms is not called the genius of nonsense, and a master of outrageousness. Not only his lyrics, full of paradoxes and black humour, but also his appearance, actions and lifestyle were subject to the laws of the genre, which today, in the era of the Internet, is called “trolling”. From modern trolls, however, harms are distinguished by the fact that I never aspired to anonymity and in the end, he paid for his views of life.

As Usachev became harms

One of the biggest hoaxes of the writer was his name. The man we know as harms actually named Daniil Ivanovich by Yuvacheva. He was born in 1905 in St. Petersburg in the family of the people of Ivan Yuvacheva. The tendency in literature appeared to him in his youth, then arose and a taste for mystification. Harms – just one of the many aliases that invent myself a novice writer. He soon became the favorite, and the poet began to subscribe to “Usachev-harms”. And then it was legalized by that name. Why Harms? Researchers believe that the origin of the nickname associated with the English mania of the writer. He loved the stories about Sherlock Holmes even tried to be like the great detective costume and appearance. The original alias was “Harm” — from the English word “pest”. Then, probably for the sake of assonance with the name “Holmes” to the word “harm,” added the letter “C”.

a Thorough education harms have not received, have graduated from high school, and was expelled, after studying two courses from the Leningrad electrotechnical school. Once in 1926, completely free from having to attend a boring lecture, Daniil Kharms fully devoted himself to literature.

the Oberiuts

harms is close friends with writers Alexander Vvedensky, Nikolay Zabolotsky by Konstantin Vaginova and others. They all admired Makowskithem, and the number itself, “leftist” writers. So there was a group OBERIU – “Association of real art”. The oberiuty proclaimed search for “new forms” in the literature and was fond of grotesque, absurdist means of achieving artistic expression.

Mayakovsky, Kharms, imitated not so much in poetry, as in shocking way of behaving. So, one day he showed up in a jacket, one of the lapels which was much longer than the other. In response to the surprised remarks, he said that he likes it that way. Loved friends out for a night on the Nevsky in tall cylinders with sofa cushions under my arm. Friends recalled that harms can be found in even stranger attire: in “incredible jacket” to the back of the attached paper flower.

Loved Kharms and antics like that: arriving at a soiree, he would suddenly, in the middle of the living room, starting to remove his pants. The confusion of the audience quickly gave way to laughter under the top pants the poet was another one.

Describe the tendency of the poet to the exhibitionism we were completely naked and go to the window and stand long enough.

Children’s publishing house

But the eccentricities of harms in life are nothing compared to what a dead end put a conservative reader of his texts, full of the absurd and surrealism. Of course, it never printed. In 1928 Kharms was invited to work Marshak, who was the editor of children’s publishing. He took under his wing Chukovsky, Zoshchenko, Schwartz, Zhitkova, Kharms… it is not Surprising that the editors of children’s literature at the writers ‘ House was, according to his contemporaries, the most fun place around Leningrad. Here produced magazines “Siskin” and “Hedgehog”, and wonderful book. Kharms wrote a lot of poems and stories for children performed in schools and pioneer camps. Despite the well-known statements about the writer’s dislike of children, these performances were a huge success. Maybe it was the fact that harms every performance was able to turn into magic? He showed magic, great juggling colorful balls. A truly absurd, that all his poems for children, a children were perceived (and perceived so far) very good.

the works of Kharms adult is not so fun. Humor is always painted in black, the absurdity reaches the scale of Frank delirium, which can be seen even features of the pathology. These works had obvious anti-Soviet flavor.

Arrests and the death of “Troll”

the first time Kharms was arrested in 1931. It was not so much his person, how many in aspiration to defeat the children’s Department of the state publishing house. With this task the staff of the GPU was done well: the legendary children’s edition ceased to exist. Kharms was questioned mainly about his work with Marshak, and almost never touched the creativity Oberiutov, calling it “clever”. This time the writer got off the link, where after some time he was able to return to Leningrad.

how behaved harms during interrogation, preserved interesting memories. Artist Vlasov, who was acquainted with one of the investigators Kharms, cites the stories of the investigator about the poet. One day Kharms in all seriousness said that the normal flow of the interrogation interferes with the rug at the door. Why? The silhouette of the investigator is projected not on the door, and on this rug. Therefore, the harms of refusing to answer questions as long as the investigator does not create normal conditions for work. As a result, the rug was thrown out of office. Such scenes occurred at every interrogation, and in the end, the investigator refused from the case because “the defendant it entertains, and it’s not coming.”

the Second time Kharms was arrested in the summer of 1941. In this case, the reason was his own statements. He was accused of “defeatism and panic”, including in such statements: “If you will give me the mobilization piece, I’ll face the commander…;the uniform I will wear and the Soviet troops will not serve, do not want to be in this shit.” It is difficult to say whether the case harms said such a thing, or is it fiction of the informer, but to serve in the army harms really didn’t want to. In the period of the Finnish war he not to get to the front, began writing his biography, to simulate schizophrenia. Caught in the “Cross” of very heavy charges, harms again resorted to “saving madness”. He had been examined by prison doctors and the verdict of schizophrenia. The report States: “… Expresses delusions of invention. Believes that he invented a way to correct the “error” the so-called PECCATUM parvum… Nonsense … devoid of consistency and logic, for example, explains why the wearing of headgear by the desire to conceal thoughts, thoughts without it being open, “outside”. To conceal his thoughts wind around the head with ribbon or cloth…”.

What was it? In fact, the disease or imitation of madness, who managed to deceive even highly experienced prison doctors? It is unlikely that we will get an answer to this question.

Kharms died of starvation in a prison hospital in the darkest days of the siege of Leningrad in February 1942.

Olga Melnikova

© Russian Seven

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