History 29/01/20 Counterintelligence, White army: the worst secret service of the Civil war
the Army of the White movement in the context of decentralization did not have the tools and resources necessary to create a truly effective structures of intelligence. However, the level of cruelty and abuse, these institutions are not inferior to the Soviet KGB. The crimes of counter-intelligence became one of the most visible manifestations of the White terror.
“have Discredited the very idea of the White movement”
“During the Civil war in the USSR on the territory seized by the whites, the counter-revolutionary counter-intelligence commit a massacre of the revolutionary masses of workers,” – says the Great Soviet encyclopedia 1937. Meanwhile, no single counter-intelligence whites did not exist, and its victims were not “revolutionary masses” and themselves as white officers.
Lack of funding and lack of qualified personnel needed to create a powerful centralized intelligence, was observed in all anti-Soviet groups. Therefore, in the field to create their own structures which sometimes did not identify the Pro-Soviet elements, and shadowing each other. Commander of the armed forces of South Russia Anton Denikin called this phenomenon a “craze”, explaining its widespread atmosphere of “mistrust and suspicion”.
it Often happens that “counterintelligence” was not averse to a direct robbery of the local population and the whites. Among the cities with the most “predatory” counterespionage Denikin calls Kharkov, Rostov-on-don, Odessa and Kiev.
in some Places in the South of Russia against such abuses were made public. For example, in Ekaterinoslav lawyers protested in connection with the fact that those arrested were kept in prison without charge and questioned for 2-3 days.
major-General Nikolai Baturin, who founded the domestic counter-intelligence, believed that their acts of counter-intelligence of the Volunteer army discredited the very idea of the White movement. The reason for this he saw in a bad staffing, the reluctance to use the experience of the Royal gendarmerie, as well as in prolonged lack of instructions on counterintelligence.
“Robbery, extortion, murder”
Arrested by the red army in Siberia Admiral Kolchak during the interrogations, many spoke of counterintelligence. According to him, such is formally not fixed arbitrarily bodies were created even in the smallest units. At the same time in counter-intelligence were volunteers, sometimes characterized the concept of “Bolshevik” in a completely arbitrary way.
“From my conversations with the officers I was under the impression that these bodies were created on the model of those which existed in Siberia during the Soviet era,” – said Kolchak.
He describes a typical scenario: armed men took away the soldiers and officers out of the cars on the railroad, and then arrested simply “disappeared”.
In the far East, the usual practice was also the detention and murder of opium traffickers, who were accused that they “Bolshevik spies.” After that taken the drug “counterintelligence” sold themselves. Created by Kolchak the Central counter-intelligence did not significantly change the situation, although he insisted that the arrests and the investigation was made “within the legal norms.”
the white Crimea situation to the last days were not better. For example, as recalled Lieutenant-General Yakov Slashchev, in Dzhankoy acted counter-intelligence unit under the leadership of “official Sharov”. According to rumors, counter-intelligence were involved in extortion, provocation, kidnapping and looting. Subsequently, the facts have been confirmed.
“it was a Good choice of counterintelligence, one of whom killed on the dirty business of his, the other flees abroad with public money, and the third incriminating things in the assignment executed and then confessed to several other crimes of robbery, extortion and murder,” said sweeter.
Thus, the white counterintelligence, partially to adopt the course of action of the Cheka, left a very bad memories, even the white generals who regretted that they were unable to rectify the situation.
© Russian Seven
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