History 18/02/20 6 countries, which most abound in Russia
“Russia – a generous soul”. This slogan is very typical for the Russian mentality. And many have learned to skillfully use it. For at least the past four centuries in our country earn all and Sundry.
Russian-British relations originate in the reign of Ivan the terrible. Russian monarch was filled to the English sincere sympathy and promised them to create conditions for their unhindered economic activities in Russia. It is obvious that in return the king expected to receive on the shores of Albion rest in the case of invincible the turmoil in their own state.
In 1555 England was founded by the Moscow company. Ivan the terrible gave their merchants preferential letter, according to which they were entitled to free and free trade in the Russian lands. The king also allowed them to build pens in Kholmogory and Vologda, and also to recruit Russian workers, without paying thus taxes. Moreover, the Moscow company was assigned exclusive use of the white sea trade route.
soon, However, English traders began to abuse their privileges. From Russian merchants increasingly began to receive complaints that the English goods come true at inflated prices, and the Russian are on low. In 1698, after another scandal the Moscow-based company lost the monopoly on the Russian market, but its continued until 1917. Moreover, by the time of the collapse of the Russian Empire, the British controlled Russia 56% of the mining copper and 70% of the gold and platinum developments.
With the return of the Grand Embassy to Russia in 1698 to us and a flood of eager to earn foreigners. They knew where they were going, Russia at the turn of XVII–XVIII centuries constitute one of the most promising ryncov work. Among the “ostarbayterov” turned out to be a lot of Dutch, because Peter is highly valued local craftsmen. Only in the reign of Peter arrived in Russia and strand two thousand citizens of Holland.
One of the most famous Dutch – the owner of factories in Moscow and Yaroslavl Johann Tames. In 1719, he decided to expand its production in Russia and asked him to ascribe to his Moscow sheeting factory village Kohma Suzdal district, promising not to increase the existing taxation of the peasants. Peter I agreed. Now the taxes from the peasants collected the Monastic order, and led by Dutch industrial company.
In the nineteenth century among the major Dutch merchants in Russia stood the figure of brewer Jean Klassen. His desire to earn eventually led to his conflict with the authorities of the excise Board: against the Dutch was even a criminal case on “violation of the Charter of the drinking gathering.”
In 1833 to Russia from debt prison ran by the Swedish inventor Emmanuel Nobel. At the new place, the Swede very quickly turned around and organized two machine-building plant, which produces products for the Navy Department. However, after the Crimean war, when the flow of orders dried up, Nobel returned to Sweden. Later his son Alfred founded the famous Nobel prize.
At the beginning of the 1870’s Robert Nobel, the eldest son of Emmanuel turned his eyes on the Baku oil region. After 10 years, he together with his brothers he founded the company “Branobel”, displacing from the market the American Corporation Standard Oil. At the peak of power as the Nobel in Russia was estimated at 60 million rubles.
nineteenth century proved fruitful for the German capital in Russia. In 1840, Maximilian von Wogau together with his brothers, opened in Moscow trade “chemical and colonial goods”. Making a fortune at it, the brothers invested the money in industry and banking. By the beginning of the First world war, the family enterprise “Vogau and To” bringabout it the owners of 41 million rubles.
At the beginning of the XX century at the Russian economic field did a good job of German electric company “AEG”, for which there was a Bank “Disconto Gesellschaft”. In our country, he owned about 90% of the electrical business. Actively participated the Germans in the industrialization of the USSR, having signed more than 70 contracts. Orders from the Soviet Union allowed many German companies specializing in military vehicles, to be saved from bankruptcy.
In the last years of the Russian Empire, many key sectors of the Russian industry, particularly steel and fuel, were in the hands of not only German, but also French capital. So, the Franco-Belgian businessmen belonged to 89.2% of the total foreign capital invested in the coal industry of Donbass. The French also owned by the Society of Russo-Baltic shipbuilding factories with a capital of 15 million rubles.
in addition, immediately after the October revolution many Russian Industrialists, fleeing from persecution by the Soviet government, went to France, taking with him a lot of money. In particular, the Konovalov had business in the textile industry exported about 7 million rubles; Gukasova earns on oil, shipbuilding and banking sector, left home with 15 million rubles.
the Enterprising Americans with considerable benefits for themselves decided the question of lend-lease, which supplied the Soviet Union with weapons, military hardware, strategic raw materials and commodities for civilian use. Lend-lease became a rich source from which to draw income, many us corporations. At minimal cost (the US provided the USSR goods worth only 9 billion dollars) they received the most dividends. As payment for lend-lease from the USSR to the USA were raw materials, including manganese and chrome ore, the value of which for the military industry is difficult to overestimate. Part of the debt is not having currency the Soviet governmentthe government had to repay in gold. Only by 1943 American banks received more than 40 tonnes of gold bullion.
© Russian Seven
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