Another 18/01/20 Which the red army took in SMERSH
the name of the Soviet military counter-intelligence derived from the phrase “Death to spies!”, it is known to all. In fact, there was not one, but several different Smersha in the army, the Navy and the NKVD. Who entrusted such an important national security work?
From the NKVD – SMERSH
Since the establishment of the new body in the spring of 1943 the personnel basis of the Main Directorate of counterintelligence of SMERSH NKO made the KGB Control of special departments of NKVD. Management of SMERSH NK Navy was formed from the marine Department of the NKVD.
Required counterintelligence experts “got it” without any problems by a simple reorganization transfer of certain units. So, for example, occurred with the separation radioigr, which was led by captain Vladimir Baryshnikov. From the Central office of the territorial bodies of counterintelligence most of the employees of this Department were enrolled in GUK SMERSH NKO. At the new place of work the former KGB continued radio games using captured enemy agents of the equipment.
the staff of the SMERSH each army division consisted of approximately 20 people.
– Before the formation of SMERSH special departments were part of the NKVD and their employees, respectively, were employees of bodies of internal Affairs, not military officers – says the former head of one of the branches of the ROC SMERSH Leonid Ivanov, noting that the reorganization has improved the interaction of counter-intelligence with the military leaders.
However, the operational personnel of the DEPARTMENT consisted not only of the KGB but also of proven veterans, many of whom fought from June 1941. Finding the relevant candidates engaged in the personnel Department, and the selection, according to the GKO was conducted “from the command-commanding and political personnel of the red Army”. It was including Junior officers. In addition to deiappropriate officers in SMERSH, there was a continuous provision of personnel, where they took a Deposit. There is also evidence that the Department was involved in “civil” lawyers.
Counterintelligence studied in special schools (Moscow, Tashkent, Khabarovsk) and in courses (Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk) in GUK SMERSH. The training period ranged from 4 to 9 months.
an Idea of what criteria the candidates selected for particular departments, it is possible to obtain, for example, from those requirements which were presented to the students of the Higher school of intelligence of the Navy. Age future Smershevtsev ranged from 20 to 35 years, admitted was to consist in the Communist party or to be a candidate for it. As an exception took scouts. The status of the health of counterintelligence was to allow to stay in the field.
as for the SMERSH, the NKVD, then here most of the operational staff consisted of former privates and sergeants of the border guard and internal troops of the NKVD. The preference was given to those who already had experience of investigative work.
Externally, the officers of SMERSH were no different from other fighters of those units that they served. A high degree of combat training confirms the fact that often the counterintelligence officers engaged in battle with the enemy, took command of troops and died from enemy bullets.
Four Smershevtsev received the title of hero of the Soviet Union posthumously. We are talking about first Lieutenant Peter Zhidkov and Lieutenant Grigory Kravtsova, Michael Krygina, Vasily Chebotarev. It is noteworthy that they all started the war as an ordinary red army, not NKVD.
a Significant part of agents of SMERSH were former agents abera either surrendered to the Soviet authorities, or compromised during field work. Without such people was not enough, because they possessed unique information about the enemy. For example, 50 of 345 counterintelligence, abandoned in the rear Of the Wehrmacht in the fall 1943 – spring 1944, were the former German agents. Smershevtsy were introduced in the intelligence of the enemy, decomposing them from the inside and supplying the Germans misleading information.
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