History 23/01/20 surrender of the Modlin fortress: the humiliating defeat of the Russian army
30 km from Warsaw, was a Russian Modlin fortress, is a huge fortified area and the primary site of defense on the Western frontier of the Russian Empire. Despite the 80-strong garrison modern weapons and supplies of food novogeorgievsk was under the surrendered of the smaller German army. Contemporaries of those events, and researchers have considered surrender the greatest shame of the Russian army not only in the First world war but throughout its history.
a Huge fortress and garrison
In 1806, Napoleon ordered to build near Warsaw network of fortresses. Fortifications were built on the Vistula river, near the village of Modlin. By order of Nicholas I called the Modlin fortress, and occupied by a Russian garrison. By the beginning of the First world war the fortress had 33 concrete Fort, equipped with modern artillery. Due to the lack of funding part of the fortifications were destroyed, but the fortified warehouses were completely filled with weapons, ammunition, food, fodder. The garrison consisted of 86 thousand soldiers and more than 2,000 officers.
In June of 1915, the Russian army under pressure from the German and Austro-Hungarian troops were forced to retreat from Poland, and on 7 August near Modlin appeared the German army consisted of 45 battalions of infantry, with almost 100 guns. Largest Russian garrison outnumbered the Germans in half, and artillery more than 10 times.
German troops, mostly battalions of the militia, took the fortress in a siege and began shelling the fortifications. After several days of fighting, the enemy took four of the Western Fort, and after heavy bombardment by artillery and airplanes have advanced to the inner fortifications. On 19 August, on the fourth day of fighting the commandant of the fortress, General Nikolay Bobyr, went oChu with the German officers. In the location of enemy troops he was taken prisoner, and next day ordered the fortress to stop the resistance. None of the officers and soldiers opposed the surrender, and the garrison obediently laid down their arms.
Historian Anatoly Utkin called the event: “the biggest, unexpected and shameful loss”, and researcher Alexander Smirnov called Modlin fortress: “monument of shame Russian Imperial army”. Brighter than all put military historian Anton Kirsanovsky: “Lost his head, the commandant — General despicable Bobyr — defected to the enemy and been sitting in German captivity, were ordered to surrender keeping to the fortress. And on the morning of 7 August the Prussian Landwehr drove the human herd in inglorious captivity.”
during siege battles, the Russian army lost several thousand in killed and wounded. Captured by the Germans were 85 thousand soldiers and officers, among whom there were 23 General. The banner units were saved thanks to the fortress aviation group, the sky shipped them to the army. In the hands of the enemy appeared 1204 million shells of artillery that the Germans later used on the Western front.
part of the guns were French, and after the war they put them on public display in Paris in Les Invalides. After the signing of the Brest peace, General Sasha was released from captivity and lived in the Crimea. When the Peninsula was occupied by the Bolsheviks, the commander of the garrison ignominiously surrendered were shot.
© Russian Seven
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