History 10/01/20 As the Soviet Union created modern China
China Today with an average annual GDP growth of 10% rightly called a country with one of the most promising economies in the world. Hard to imagine that fifty years ago China was a raw materials appendage of the Soviet Union and the main consumer of Soviet goods.
on 1 October 1949 with the direct participation of the USSR was proclaimed a new socialist state – the people’s Republic of China. It is not surprising that his first visit of the Chinese leader Mao Zedong made it to Moscow. And immediately, the parties entered into a number of important political and economic agreements.
Among them, the contract on granting to China the loan in the amount of 1 billion 200 thousand rubles. “Given the extraordinary degree of Razorenov China war,” as noted in the document, the loan granted on the most favorable terms is just 1% per annum: his redemption was carried out for 10 years supply Chinese raw material, of gold and American dollars.
at the same time with financial aid from the USSR to China has sent thousands of skilled workers for the restoration of objects of national economy. At least about 20 thousand Soviet specialists worked on the development of the Chinese economy. All of them were involved in more than 150 projects related to defence industry, energy, aviation, automotive, shipbuilding, machine building, metallurgy, electrical engineering, pharmaceutics.
for a brotherly country and a flood of trucks, railway equipment, devices and other means that allowed the young Communist power in the shortest time to get to his feet. China did not remain in debt: in the Soviet Union in huge quantities was food and scarce raw materials, including tungsten, without which it could not do the Soviet military industry. The volume of Sino-Soviet tradeand was truly a great one: in 1949 China had supplied goods to the amount of 420 million rubles, and in the opposite direction to 436 million.
the First phase of fruitful cooperation between Moscow and Beijing was marked by the signing, on 14 February 1950 Treaty of friendship and mutual assistance. “Russian with the Chinese – brothers forever” – words from a popular song of the fifties give an unprecedented rapprochement between the two Communist regimes, for which the Union was a major element in the confrontation between world imperialism.
in the spring of 1950 USSR and China sign a number of important agreements that laid the Foundation for the establishment of joint Sino-Soviet joint-stock companies. The joint venture shall have been in control virtually all the key sectors of the Chinese economy. The Soviet government believed that only under the watchful supervision industrialization of China may be aimed in the right direction and will benefit both the Chinese people and the Soviet Union.
In the framework of such cooperation was founded the joint venture “Socketmail and Socitety”. The first was engaged in the prospecting, exploration, mining and processing of non-ferrous and rare earth metals, the second – the same, but in respect of oil and gas. Both companies operated on the territory of Xinjiang province.
For a few years the USSR and the PRC has created a global market, in the orbit which gradually involved and the countries of the European Soviet bloc, East Germany, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania. The common economic space, stretching from Berlin to Beijing, which included a good third of humanity, to the mid-fifties, were in competition with the market capitalist powers. And its natural and demographic potential of the “socialist market” in the coming years could undermine the position of the world of bourgeois Economics.
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had No analogues and information support rendered to China by the Soviet Union. Only for the first three years of cooperationtion of the two countries was translated into Chinese and published over three thousand titles of books on management, Economics, metallurgy, energy, engineering, military Affairs. In China launched a global reorganization of curricula on the model of Soviet universities. Since the early 1950s, the Chinese students were given the opportunity to study at higher educational institutions of the USSR. In the next 10 years under this program, the Soviet Union has trained over 20 thousand Chinese.
But while the Chinese have acquired knowledge in the economic sphere, ready in the future to occupy important positions in the state, Soviet specialists were ordered to China economic development plans for many years to come. Special attention is sent to China specialists was paid to the statistical account, which is indispensable to the management of the various sectors of the economy such a big country as China.
it is No exaggeration to say that the Soviet Union gave China the technology and the unique management experience, without which it would be difficult to count on any serious place in the world economy. And if at the end of the Stalin era, such cooperation was mutually beneficial, then after the change of political course in the mid-1950s, it has gradually become a unilateral Soviet aid, do not assume extract serious dividends.
the Engine of progress
3 April 1953 the Ministry of heavy industry of the PRC approved perhaps the most significant project realizovyvali with Soviet assistance plan automobile plant in Changchun.It was assumed that its pipeline will annually go up to 30 thousand trucks. This administrative centre of Jilin province was chosen for a reason: there are infrastructure, which during the occupation of China created Japanese government for the needs of the Kwantung army.
According to the Directive, signed by Chairman Mao, Changchun automobile plant was to be built in three years. To Strothe construction of this massive structure was brought about 26 thousand Soviet design organizations, more than 200 Soviet enterprises in China has sent nearly 200 highly qualified specialists of the Moscow automobile plant named after Stalin (now the Likhachev factory).
Soviet specialists participated in all phases of the project: chose a site, designed the main objects, controlled the construction and installation of equipment. Chinese workers were provided with all the necessary production technologies; all drawings and other technical documentation were provided to the Soviet side, and previously translated into Chinese. Sources indicate that more than 22.5 thousand of non-standard tools used in production, almost 12 thousand have been made in the USSR, representing the newest samples.
the opening of the Changchun automobile No1, which was destined to become one of the main engines of the Chinese economy took place as scheduled on 15 October 1956. Even after the launch of the joint venture all of its processes for some time under the control of the Soviet experts, in parallel, there was transfer of experience and training Chinese workers. If Huiming, who later became Deputy Director of the factory No2, admitted that engineers from the Soviet Union laid a Foundation of knowledge that he perfected all his life.
One of the products manufactured by the Changchun auto giant, has become a cargo car of the raised passableness “of Stefan” (“Release”), representing a replica of the ZIS-150. This car was set exclusively in the Chinese people’s liberation army, in particular, it was used as a base for launchers of volley fire “Type 74”. And in 1958 the plant in Changchun has released the passenger car of the Executive class “Hunza” (“Red flag”) for members of the Politburo of the CCP. Until 1981 it was built 847 of these cars.
Later, on the basis Changchun AVtzavta No1 was created industry group FAW (First Automotive Works), which is now the largest company of China for the production of passenger, cargo and passenger transport with an annual turnover of $32 billion However you need to remember that China’s success in engineering and other areas of Economics would be impossible without the enormous material, technical and personnel assistance in the 1950s showed him the Soviet Union.
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