History 21/02/20 MO Ssric “hid” the Moscow Kremlin in the Great Patriotic
plans for the masking of the Moscow Kremlin from his commandant Nikolai Spiridonov was still, in 1939, he addressed an appropriate letter to the leadership of the country. However, to hide the capital’s main object from the enemy aircraft began only with the first days of the great Patriotic war.
What were the options of disguise
Sketches of the “other” Kremlin’s Federal security service declassified only a few years ago. According to the employee a press-services FSO Valentine Zhilyaeva, there were several projects to disguise the Moscow Kremlin. This work began even before the release of a special resolution of the State defense Committee on the establishment of service at masking the city Council (it was adopted on 9 July 1941).
Architects and engineers involved in the development and implementation of masking the Moscow Kremlin was headed by the famous Soviet academician Boris Iofan. The main task was best to hide the location of this object from the Nazi reconnaissance aircraft and bombers.
the Kremlin had air had a very visible form – it is the objects together formed a triangle, plus the square of the complex was impressive – 28 ha Green roofs of the buildings of the Kremlin in the capital, more is almost never met, so the first thing they repainted in brown color, characteristic of the majority of the Moscow buildings.
According to Valentina Zhilyaeva, painting engaged employees of the Kremlin commandant and soldiers of the regiment of special purpose. The bell tower of Ivan the Great masked with the participation of climbers. The domes of the Moscow churches also repainted to gold did not attract attention from above, and the Kremlin stars are wearing a covers. Concealed under the veneer, the teeth of the Kremlin wall, and on it painted Windows and doors if it’s a house.
among other things, the Kremlin in extrasEnnom order was built up buildings-ghosts. It was the second variant of the masking – body simulation. The Lenin Mausoleum (the body of the leader in July was there) added 2 of wood floor. In the heart of the Moscow Kremlin territory were constructed about city blocks, changing the layout of the Alexander and the Taynitsky gardens.
How many times have bombed the Kremlin hidden
According to official data of the FSO, Moscow Kremlin in the Great Patriotic war bombed 8 times in the first 2 years of the Second World – 5 times in 1941 and 3 in 1942. most affected Arsenal in August 1941 unexploded bomb there destroyed a part of the building and damaged several nearby objects, including a Small garage. In total, these bombings killed more than 60 people.
By mid-1943 Hitler’s air force has reduced the intensity of the attacks on the capital because of the high efficiency of the Soviet air defense system – during world war II in the skies over Moscow were destroyed over 1,300 enemy aircraft.
When I removed the disguise
the mausoleum was given its usual look during parade of 7 November 1941. As Stalin himself said, the weather even the weather these days favored the Bolsheviks – it was bad for aviation. The final dismantling of all false structures in the capital was carried out only directly in front of the other momentous parade – post-war, held in Moscow in June 1945. A few months before that the Mausoleum brought the mummy of the leader, who was all this time in Tyumen.
Partially disassemble camouflage design began in the second half of 1942, when enemy air attacks on the capital are not as intense. One of the most serious problems encountered by restorers after the dismantling of the camouflage cover, was the restoration of the original cover domes of the Kremlin cathedrals – they applied gray paint, and it is so ingrained that I had to use special chemicals to remove it.
© Russian Seven
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