Why Lenin helped the Turks to establish their own state

History 23/02/20 Why Lenin helped the Turks to establish their own state

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is one of the most popular people in today’s Turkey. In each city erected a monument in his part in every public institution, his portrait hangs.

the Sick man of Europe

By the beginning of XX century, the decline of the once-formidable Ottoman Empire had reached his limit. Imagine that only a generation ago did you live in a great country, stretching from the Danube to the cataracts and from Baghdad to Tripoli, and your ruler was the Caliph, i.e. the head, though nominal, Muslims around the world. But now, after the defeat in the First world war (where you fought on the side of the aggressor), the capital and almost the entire territory of your country is occupied, the Sultan Mehmed takes the orders of the Commissioner of the Entente, the Parliament disbanded by the British army under the supervision of Western military advisers successfully samoraspustitsya.

moreover, in 1920, under the terms of the Treaty of Sevres, Turkey (or rather, remaining from the once extensive holdings of the Peninsula of Asia Minor and the European shore of the Bosphorus) does decide to completely eliminate, and divided between the victorious powers.

You can save only a miracle. And it comes in the face of 40-year-old officer by the name of Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

the External and internal appearance

photograph handsome man with striking gray and strong-willed chin, with a jacket and tie — just exactly the actor of the “Golden age” of Hollywood. But only a quarter of a century previously, any European artist would depict the Ottoman ruler Sultan bearded in a red FEZ on the background of colorful carpet, surrounded by obsequious vizier and odalisques. For one, this transformation of the image indicates the tremendous changes that have taken place in Turkey in 15 years, the reign of Mustafa Kemal (1923-1938).

Like many patriots of the Empire, he was born on the outskirts, in a poorOh, family in Thessaloniki circa 1880. The surname Ataturk, meaning “Father Turk” or “Grand Turk”, received much later, at the suggestion of the Parliament in 1934.

the Great reformer was the “father of the nation” in the literal meaning: Allah made Ataturk’s children — the adopted ten orphans, and the year before death over to the state of their land holdings and part of the property.

But that was much later… But in the meantime, Mustafa ends the war College and the General staff Academy in Istanbul before the First world involved in the fighting in Libya against the Italians, in Thrace against the Bulgarians.

During the great war — successfully, as it allows the overall deplorable state of the Ottoman army, commanding the troops on the decisive sectors of the front in Asia minor.

However, the war is lost. The Empire is defeated. In the summer of 1919, not wanting to participate in the liquidation of the army, Mustafa Kemal was dismissed from all official positions and collecting in the Eastern part of the country supporters of independence; the occupation administration condemns him to death.

Kemal Pasha, creates an alternative center of power — in the spring of 1920 in Ankara convened the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (note: do not spread out on three continents the Ottoman Empire, namely Turkey). Future Ataturk was elected President of the Parliament and head of government.

However, his final victory could hardly be achieved without the help of Soviet Russia: in the years 1920-22, the Russian Federation has put Kemal weapons, ammunition and about two kilograms of gold. The purpose of comrade Lenin, in addition to supporting revolutionary movements in the neighboring country, was purely pragmatic: the establishment of a friendly regime had taken control of the Straits that are critical for export of grain from the new Russia — one of the few sources of foreign currency for the young Soviet state.

the creation of the nation

the Devastating collapse of the Empire, combined with the demoralized people and political bankruptcy of the former elite in the same time provided a suitable starting conditions for a profound transformation.

“total independence is possible only with economic independence”, — said Ataturk. A complete list of his reforms and innovations 1920-30-ies would have taken the entire text of this article. Here only the most significant: the abolition of the Sharia court and the prohibition of polygamy, the transition to created on the Western model of a legal norm, Gregorian calendar, metric system and clothing in the European manner; translation in Turkey used the Arabic alphabet to the Latin alphabet and purification of the vocabulary from Arabic and Persian borrowings. And yet, the abolition of the old aristocratic titles, the introduction of names and surnames, the transfer of the capital from Constantinople to Ankara, the establishment of a 5-day working week, creating the first national Bank, nationalization of railroads, the adoption of a plan of industrial development, similar to the Soviet five-year plan.

Democratization has affected all spheres of life. Women obtained the right to study in universities, to do business, to vote, to be elected to Parliament. The Church separated from the state and translated the Quran into Turkish; the legendary Hagia Sophia has evolved from the existing mosque into a Museum. Was unified educational system, built hundreds of new schools which is mandatory to attend literacy courses.

of Course, Mustafa Kemal was not a perfect Caliph of the Eastern tale. In the years of his reign continued oppression of non-Turkish nationalities (for example, during the suppression of the Kurdish uprising in 1925, killing thousands of civilians). Despite the respect for Islam that atatürk loved a drink of alcohol drink “raki”; the death of the reformer (10 November 1938), in fact, followed because of the cirrhosis of the liver, caused, as I believe, of excessive alcohol abuse.

folk memory

Modern Turkey, member of NATO and a candidate member of the EU, widely recognized as a developed and democratic state. However, insulting Ataturk and criticism of his acts in this country is prohibited by law (until a real prison term). However, the debate about the correctness of choice, then in favor of non-Islamic cultural and legal norms for the sake of building a secular state continue in Ankara today.

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