Weapons 18/12/19 that Soviet tankers nicknamed tank T-34 “crematorium”
the Famous T-34 tank appeared in the USSR, not on an empty place. In 1929, the Soviet high command became interested in the developments of American designer John Walter Christie, who was obsessed with the idea of creating a “brocabulary” for quick raids behind enemy lines and even designed for this particular suspension, in which the caterpillars can quickly be replaced by wheels. In the following, 1930, two of the tank “Christie” M1940 were purchased from the Soviet Union with production license and technical documentation.
the development of the tank
Despite the fact that in the Russian tanks were without towers, our designers began their study and to design the Soviet military machine.
writes a group of authors led by historian E. E. Alexandrov in the article “the Tank of Ukraine in the years 1927-1945: organizational and industrial aspects” on the basis of the M1940 from 1931 to 1937, there appeared high-speed BT tanks, BT-2, BT-5 with 45-mm cannon and BT-7.
In 1939, was created tank BT-7M with aviation diesel engine In-2. BT has already used the armor plates located at an angle, which makes the machine less vulnerable.
In 1938, the tankers refused to turn the wheel, stopping the choice on tracks, increased armour and armament. As a result of these efforts at the Kharkov locomotive works came to light tanks A-32, A-34, tank T – 28: it featured thick armor and a 76 mm gun L-10.
In a series under the T-34 went tank A-34.
the Comparison is not in favor of our
In 1940 at Kubinka on the ground brought the two German tank Pz.III, and the comparison was not in favor of the T-34. Our tank was noisy: the German machine was heard for 250 metres, and T-34 – over half a mile. Pz.III accelerated to 70 km/h, and the T-34 could barely reach 48.2 km/h. A German tank was comfortable, and the commander was a separate tower excellent review, the crew had communication devices.
At the close the tower T-34 barely got into two, the commander was also the gunner, and the radio was only between him and the driver.
in addition, the Pz.III was a soft suspension, excellent optical quality and standing of a reliable gasoline engine.
After the test, the warranty period of the T-34 was reduced to 1000 km, the release continued, but began to develop a modification of the T-34M. It was decided to abandon the “Christie suspension”, put the shift stage to increase a tower and a habitable volume, to raise ground clearance and to install the diesel engine of 600 HP In may 1941, three tanks had already been collected, but the war began, and had to fight what was – T-34.
In 1942 the T-34 was tested by the Americans on the ground in Aberdeen (Maryland, USA) after which the light supposedly there was a document entitled “Evaluation of tanks T-34 and KV”, which was allegedly signed by the chief of the II-th Main Directorate of the GRU, major-General Vasily Efremovich by Hlopova.
the document allegedly stated that the engine of the T-34 was out of order after 343 km of mileage, the reason for this was the air duct, clogged with dirt. After getting her to the Chu, the engine supposedly jammed, causing the tank test was removed.
the Americans noted that the coil spring is made from poor quality steel, tower close, the issues caused and the permeability of the casing, and a rotary mechanism of the tower – he was “weak sparks”. Could not withstand criticism machining of steering clutches, and transmissions, are installed on the T-34, American refused 20 years ago.
Separately from the Yankees shocked the internal space combat vehicle: overcrowding, lack of basic amenities for the crew. But that like the Americans, so it’s powerful diesel engine, and ergonomic placement of ammunition.
meanwhile, the existence of the document is already a matter of controversy, since the text of the actual results of the “Assessment…” T-34 rarely seen, although it exists and has 600 Stranic with photos. Researcher Dmitry Trushkin specifies that the text discrediting the T-34 “Estimates…” based on the retelling of the words of landfill employees GRU officer, Lieutenant-General Illicium. The real name of the document – Partial Second and First Consolidated Report on Russian Medium Tank T34 and 10th Report on Ordnance Program #5887, 02.12.1943, Army Ordnance Research Centre. It is a report on the sea trials of the tank and the results of studies of metals made by different laboratories, but in General access is not located so far.
Soon appeared in the USSR new tank T-34-85, and in 1944 on the basis of Т34М was created T-44.
Tanks do have disadvantages. Experienced tankers were called T-34 crematorium , his fuel tank was located near the crew, between the sidewalls, the thin armor with their missile. From hit of shells the hatches were often jammed and to get out was impossible, so tankers tried not to close them if conditions allowed of the battle.
the Last of the war tanker ion Lazarevich Degen recalled that the T-34-85 was presented a “tin can”. Commanders cursed seat on springs, and the crew suffocated from the gases. The review has been minimal – through the periscope or the sights were hard to see, and stick out from the tower, or open the hatch driver’s hatch was dangerous during street fights. When the shell hit the turret the crew inside was loaded with scale and armor fragments on the inside. In addition, because of the closeness, when the shell hit the armor, the crew was injured from a sharp blow on the inner components and assemblies. Therefore, there were cases when not even breaking the armor, the projectile, disabling the crew.
However, the T-34 there were advantages, such as maneuverability, diesel engine, the ratio price – quality. If the American “Sherman” cost from 235 to 344 850 500 rubles, the production of T-34 cost from 136 to 179 380 400 rubles. For comparison – in the Soviet Union under lend-lease was delivered 3 664 “Sherman”, while during the war, according to “Reference data of the people’s Commissariat of the tank industry of the USSR in 1941-1945 for the production of armored vehicles” was produced 467 35 T-34 tank.
As specifies in its publications, the historian Alexei Kirichenko (article “the clash of mentalities: T-34 vs Panther), the superiority of the T-34 in protection, mobility and firepower was achieved at the expense of crew comfort, and most of the advantages the crew could not realize because of a bad review. However, after 4 months of the war Hitler’s generals were forced to draw a conclusion about the effectiveness of Soviet tank and begin to create their “Tigers” and “Panthers”.
no Wonder that field Marshal Paul von Kleist called T-34 “the best tank in the world” and a former Wehrmacht officer, historian Werner Haupt, acknowledged that T-34 is excellent in the maneuverability and combat power, and most importantly – it is powerless against all anti-tank weapons.
© Russian Seven
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