What Russia uninhabitable

Another 21/12/19 What Russia uninhabitable

Russia is considered a country with the harsh climate. With the exception of the southern regions, winter here lasts up to 5 months of the year. In addition, the geographical position of Russia contributed to the fact that a large part of its territory proved to be unsuitable for habitation. Talking about the so-called eternal (years) of permafrost, which covers about 11 million km2 or 65% of the area of our country.

Treacherous ground

If you look at the map of Russia, the border zone of permafrost land stretches from the Kola Peninsula, passes just to the North of Arkhangelsk, and then moving South-East up to the border with Mongolia. Then it shifted to the North and rises to the sea of Okhotsk, leaving aside the Kamchatka and Primorsky Krai.

the Average temperature of permafrost, located to the North of the planned line is -9 °C, with a mean depth of about 600 m. Record the depth of permafrost, 1370 m, was recorded in February 1982 in Yakutia.

the Term “permafrost” is entrenched in the scientific revolution due to the first explorers, prospectors and hunters for furs, faced in Siberia, with sturdy like a stone soil. In one of the reports of the 40-ies of the XVII century voivode Golovin and Glebov wrote to the Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich: “And in the Yakut-de, sovereign, the stories of trade and industrial service people, the grain of arable land to gate; land-de, sovereign, and among the summer is not all nastaivaet”.

permafrost deprived the settlers of the ability to grow under natural conditions, useful culture. There are, however, all sorts of tricks — for example, the use of river silt, which cover the frozen ground. However, it is very time-consuming process, and the reward for the work done will be only small and tasteless vegetables, like carrots or potatoes.

the Frozen ground is a serious obstacle to the erection infrastructure, although in some cases people are using its advantages. So, in the mines located in permafrost zones, arches of the tunnels are supported by wooden or metal beams, and frozen soil. Used mine successfully used as refrigerated warehouses by keeping them constantly low temperature.

because Of its fortress, the frozen ground seems to be solid Foundation for any building, but we should not forget that from 10 to 90% of its composition is ice. Once part of the top layer of the frozen soil begins to melt, the soil becomes loose and fluid and resting on it construction warp and crack.

it’s the construction of buildings and melted on the ground. In the case of freezing, the volume of the soil under the Foundation of the house will increase by 10-12%, which will lead to the destruction of concrete structures. To prevent deformation of buildings in the conditions of permafrost soils, they put in piles, and between the ground and the base of the house to leave space in order to change the structure of the soil did not affect the building.

Another danger of frozen soils — their inability to absorb water. In summer, during heavy rains water begins to accumulate in the upper soil layers, and once a critical mass is overcome, she is destructive force to burst out. If the area of breakthrough will come under residential construction, then serious consequences can not be avoided.

anxiety symptoms

Arctic regions of Russia, entirely covered in permafrost, it is extremely important for the country in economic and strategic terms. However, in the process of development of these territories interferes with the degradation of soils, which on the one hand provokes global warming, with other industrial impact. According to experts of the Ministry of construction, this can lead to partial or complete destruction of supporting structures of buildings. Mathias Ulrich, researcher, Institute of geography, Leipzig University, believes that the most pronounced permafrost degradation manifests itself in Yakutia, where contente-soil ice is on average 80%.

Now, on the proposal of the Ministry of construction in the program of development of the Arctic will include new regulations of construction, taking into account constantly changing as permafrost-affected soils. As stated by the Deputy Director General for design and survey works of JSC “fundamentproekt” Alexander Ryazanov, a new technology based on the development of exclusively Russian builders — other circumpolar countries do not have such experience permafrost, such as Russia.

Today, the thawing of ground ice in Russia is faster than in several decades before. On aerospace images show a large number of new thermokarst lakes that develop due to subsidence of the soil. The length of some of them exceeds 200 m. scientists estimate that the soil in such places is sagging by about 7 cm per year.

Melting ice gradually releases deposits of natural gas. At the moment, geologists are counted in the forest about 7 thousand methane bubbles, which upon rupture can lead to the formation of huge craters. In 2012, one of these craters about 40 m in diameter found Yamal hunter. According to him, he dropped into the failure of the 100-meter rope with the load, but the bottom never got.

you Can imagine what will happen if you start to sink and crumble, the melted soil in which the roads, the pipelines, built the factories and the worst — of the city. The specialists have already fixed partial destruction of houses in Yakutsk. And this process, unfortunately, impossible to stop. According to a joint German-Russian group of geologists, since 2006, the increase in temperature in the permafrost soils of Siberia reached 1.5—2 °C.

it is Obvious that increasing the degradation of the permafrost will require a significant increase in human and material resources for maintaining existing infrastructure and creating new ones. All this, of course, would increase the cost of Russian projects in the Arctic.

Melting of permafrost-affected soils causes irreparable urit is the ecology of the planet. He hauls himself out of the soil, the carbon is subject to the atmosphere, and it only enhances the global warming. According to scientists, in fairly short historical time period may occur is a giant greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that in the multi-year permafrost contains 1500 GT of carbon, which is two times higher than its content in the atmosphere.

the intergovernmental panel on climate change concluded that warming of permafrost will accelerate global warming by about 10%. According to their calculations, by the year 2100 emissions of greenhouse gases from permafrost could raise temperatures by an average of 0.3 °C.

Another danger of wydawania subsurface of ice — a return to life all sorts of pathogens long forgotten or even unknown to mankind diseases. So, after a hot summer of 2016 in the Yamal Peninsula, an epidemic of anthrax — this is the first time after 1941, and scientists fear that not the last.

Taras Repin

© Russian Seven

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