History 29/01/20 As the Japanese wanted to take the far East Russia
During the intervention in Russia, 1918-1922. foreign powers pursued their own, often divergent, interests. Japan sought to create in the far East a separate state entities under its protectorate.
the Union of Cossack troops in the Far East
Most massive force in the anti-Bolshevik movement, the Cossacks, who sought thus to regional autonomy or even independence. On this basis, many Cossack leaders often had conflicts with the leaders of the White movement, did not acknowledge anything other than “one and indivisible Russia”. The conflicts of foreign powers had sought to use to their advantage.
in the far East in early 1918, were isolated three Cossack region, headed by ataman: Zabaykalsky (Gregory Semenov), Amur (Ivan Gamov) and Ussuri (Ivan Kalmykov). The chieftains had a different temperament. Semenov and Kalmykov earned, even among white guards and interventionists reputation serial criminals and murderers. Gamow, to his credit, to such dubious glory was far. But they all had the same foreign policy, heavily supported by Japanese grants.
the Chieftains sought full independence for their regions from the authorities of any emerging governments, announced about its “all-Russian” mission. The most uncompromising stance here immediately took the Kalmyks. By the way, Japanese troops landed in Vladivostok, 5 April 1918.
Semyonov, on the contrary, at first nominally obeyed the Provisional Siberian government was formed in Omsk in June 1918. In late August 1918, the TRANS-Baikal Cossacks and Czechoslovak troops have established an operational connection on the TRANS-Siberian railway. 10 September Omsk, the government appointed Semyonov commander of his in the Priamursk militaryMr. district. In late September of 1918, messengers Semenova participated in the Public meeting in Ufa, which was proclaimed by the Russian Provisional government.
Simultaneously, the chieftains sought to unite their forces in the far East scale, justifying it by the specific conditions and interests of their regions. 31 October 1918 at the “summit” of the three far Eastern Cossack atamans in Khabarovsk announced the establishment of the far Eastern Union of Cossack troops of the de facto federated Autonomous Cossack Republic in the far East. As Supreme commander under the name of the marching ataman of all Cossack troops was entrusted, was unsuccessful.
the Conflict the chieftains of the Kolchak
Relations leader with Omsk escalated after the seizure of power by Vice-Admiral Alexander Kolchak on November 18, 1918. Kolchak declared himself the “Supreme ruler of Russia”. Semenov and the other two far Eastern chieftain refused to recognize it as such.
At the same time Semenov led directly negotiating with other Cossacks and white guard leaders. So, in December, 1918, to him came an emissary of the Orenburg Cossack army Colonel Rudakov with the assistance of the Orenburg Cossacks, who are in difficult situation because of the advance of the red army. Simeons has ordered to allocate to the aid of the Orenburg division and three armoured trains, however, the Orenburg ataman Alexander Dutov has reportedly refused to take this assistance for political reasons – due to the fact that Semenov did not obey to Kolchak. However, it is unclear how such a military force could be sent from Transbaikalia through the territory controlled by Kolchak in the conditions of almost military conflict between him and Semenov.
Semyonov declared a blockade of the “white Siberia” from the Far East and did not allow the cargo sent by the allies, Kolchak’s TRANS-Siberian railway. Those had to be transported to their Northern sea route, across the mouth of the Obi, and the way opened only in the summer of 1919. Thus, in a crucial period of its the struggle against the Bolsheviks, in the winter of 1918/19 and in the spring of 1919, Kolchak’s army was completely devoid of material supply by the allies that was not the last reason for her defeat.
All talks about the obedience of the far Eastern Cossacks, Kolchak fell Semenov, which was Japanese. At the end of December 1918 Kolchak in a letter to the commander of the white armies in South Russia, General Anton Denikin (Denikin received this letter in April 1919) complained that “supported by the Japanese so-called atamans Semenov, Kalmykov, Gamow and his gangs form a hostile group, and I still have issues with them not settled, as the Japanese openly intervened and prevented me from armed force to bring into subjection Semenova”.
These lines are revealing in many ways. First, it is clear that Kolchak (instead of Semenov) was the initiator of acute conflict, seeking to achieve the unconditional subordination of the chieftains and avoiding compromise. But why Semenov, participated in the struggle against the Bolsheviks from the first days of the civil war, was to obey the hitherto obscure Vice-Admiral, brought to Omsk the English? Secondly, Kolchak calls the Cossacks of the far Eastern “gangs” not because of their atrocities, but only because of the disobedience of their leader. This leads one to suspect that the focus on these atrocities were made afterwards deliberately and in fact the far Eastern atamans nothing in this respect was not different from that of Kolchak and his loyal chieftains (Dutov, Annenkov, etc.).
the collapse of the ataman
on may 25, 1919, under the influence of defeats from the red army and for assistance with the Far East, Kolchak was removed from Semenov the charges of treason and appointed him commander of the Eastern Siberian corps. In response Semenov announced the recognition of Kolchak as the “Supreme ruler” (note that Denikin did it after only two weeks). In January, 1920, being betrayed by the Czechs, Kolchak, in its latest order, formally regave power in Siberia and the far East ataman Semyonov.
far Eastern Cossack units practically did not participate in the battles of the civil war on the main fronts, all the time were busy fighting on the domestic front against the guerrillas, most of which was not the Bolsheviks. In 1920, the Bolsheviks created a “buffer state” – the far Eastern Republic (DDA). The main opponent of the DDA was Semenov. At the end of 1920, he lost control over the region, however, in 1921 for a short time was once again able to regain the capital region – Chita, and then lost it completely. Leadership in anti-Bolshevik struggle in the East of Russia moved to the Novel Ungaro who tried to translate the Japanese project of the Mongol Empire.
Attempt to create in the far East for a separate state under the protection of Japan could not succeed not only because of the extreme unpopularity of the chieftain Board, but because of diplomatic opposition from the United States, who sought to prevent such strengthening of positions of Japan and which support the Pro-Soviet project of the DDA.
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