History 30/01/20 Terezin and Talerhof: when they built the first concentration camp for Russians
the First in the twentieth century concentration camp where they kept people, objectionable to the state, appeared in civilized Europe six weeks after the outbreak of the First world war.
In the Czech Terezin and Talerhof Austrian in September 1914 the Russians were driven EN masse or Ruthenians who lived in the territories of Carpathian Rus’, Galicia and Bukovina, which were at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Pursued by the Austrian authorities, with the support of the Vatican, the genocide of Rusyns was implemented with the active participation of German, Hungarian, Ukrainian and Polish nationalists.
the Only fault of the prisoners of these camps was their unwillingness to renounce their Orthodox faith and ethnicity in favor of Catholicism and of the Ukrainian nation. In his book “essays on the history of the Russian movement in Galichina in XIX-XX centuries” historian Nina Pashayeva says that in those days the word “Ukrainian” meant only “anti-Russian minority”.
Russophobic policy, for 24 years conducted by the authorities in places of compact residence of Rusyns in 1914 reached its climax, and those who did not become Ukrainian, condemned himself to terrible suffering and death. Confirmation of this historical fact is that Lviv military commandant Franz Rims: “Galician Russians are divided into two groups: a) Russophile and b) Ukrainophiles. If any Russian can to fix it, then this is possible only when you use the tools the defenseless terror. My opinion is that all Russophiles are radicals, because they should be mercilessly destroyed.”
Terezin and Talerhof
the First place where the arrested Russian was transformed into a concentration camp of terezín, but a few days later she was no longer able to accommodate new prisoners. Then within days the decision was made onorganization in an open field near the new Talerhof concentration points, where 4 Sep 1914, was directed the flow of prisoners from the territory of modern Western Ukraine. From the report of field Marshal Sleer it follows that, on the 9th of November 1914 in the camp there were 5 700 “Russophile”.
Representing a barbed wire fence around a square plot of land Talerhof got his first barracks in the autumn of 1915, before the Russian prisoners in any weather slept under the open sky directly on the ground. In new housing, where it’s very crowded at the same time lived 300 people, was nothing but a wooden plank, covered with straw, which was gnezdovoi insects.
in Addition to General prison, in Talerhof were camera-isolators, which treated the most active and recalcitrant prisoners. Before placing the unwanted prisoner in solitary, the guards cruelly beat him, and then did not allow him to look out the window, punishing for disobedience thrusts of the bayonet in the face. Unsanitary conditions, cold, hunger, epidemics helped the brutal overseers to bring to life the idea of the ruthless extermination of the Russian, who did not deserve leniency. From the memoirs of a prisoner Vasily Vavrik, it becomes clear that Talerhof, over time obtained a place of torture, a firing trench, with a string of gallows and vast cemetery, was a “terrible dungeon of all Austrian prisons in the Habsburg Empire.”
upon arrival At the camp all the prisoners had to go through disinfection in the bath and then naked in the fresh air to wait until they give clothes. With regard to routine bathing, it is often this procedure was performed in the cold days, below, drove the naked people on the street, give them immense suffering. One of those swimming provoked in Talerhof outbreak of typhus was raging for four months and claimed 1350 lives.
In the book “Terezin and Talerhof” Basil Vavryk described the difficult conditions of survival in the equiet camps, where death rarely occurred due to natural reasons, because there it has spread through deliberate infection of humans injections with strains of infectious diseases. Treatment in the conventional sense they are not supposed to, the doctors only fixed the dynamics of the flow supplied to human beings for medical experiments, completely forgetting about the Hippocratic oath.
And in the heat, and in cold worked daily from morning till night the slaves were engaged in plowing fields, alignment pits, roads, collecting horse manure and the cleaning of latrines. As a reward they received involved in straw, horse chestnuts and base flour bread, broth rotten beet, waste potatoes, horse meat, foul and dirty water. Dishes in the camp was not provided, so everyone came out of the situation as best they could. Some used as a the bowl hat, the other formed plate of bread, and others were adapted to fit your needs bottle with a broken neck.
the Guards in the camps of Terezin and Talerhof were mostly Bosnians, but the most rabid, according to Vavrik, behaved former colleagues: “Soulless German could not so deeply to get his iron boots in the soul of the Slav-Ruthenian, as the same Rusin, who called himself a Ukrainian.” The guards had full authority and could do with inmates all they want. Calling the prisoners “Russian pigs”, they openly amused, brutally beating, torturing and shooting innocent prisoners. Miraculously survived the meat grinder of Talerhof Ilya hoshovskyy recalled how officers of the 27th regiment of the Moravian met him in the camp only “lightning fast punches to the face”, while others were less fortunate – they either wounded with bayonets, or even killed.
According to the testimony Vavrik, Central square Talerhof was covered with poles for hanging, which are never empty. On them for the purpose of intimidation with the help of ropes, missed, under the arms, hung the victims who were in this position for two hours. Because of thisth painful torture in historical sources Russian genocide is often referred to as “the Galician Calvary.”
the Women’s camp
In Talerhof in addition to the men’s camp the Austrians staged a separate children’s and women’s prison, which subtly mocked the prisoners, humiliating their honor and dignity. Deliberately not bothering about creating toilets, camp officials singled out for urinating natural needs outdoor areas. When the guards saw that women, in shame, had the sense to cover each other, organizing some semblance of a fence, they deliberately began to surround the poor, observing them and allowing themselves with the horrific antics.
the Sad results of
in Force until may 1917 the concentration camp Talerhof was hell for 20 thousand Russian. Still it is not known exactly how many prisoners died here, but clearly found during the construction of the airport Graz Talerhof the remains of 1 767 people – not the final figure.
According to research by journalist Dmitry Markov, only the first half of 1915 in the concentration camp were killed 3,800 people.
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