History 09/01/20 Park on the bones: what did Stalin in the place of the Fraternal cemetery of heroes of the war
the First world war the Bolsheviks was referred to as “imperialist”. Evidence of the very dismissive attitude of the Soviet authorities to the soldiers who defended the Fatherland in 1914-1918, was the destruction in Moscow Brotherly cemetery of war heroes, which was located near the current metro station “Sokol”.
the Necropolis for heroes
beginning in 1914, the war between the allies and the fourth creature Union was much more bloody than originally hoped the warring parties. When Russia began to come EN masse “funerals” from the front, the idea arose to arrange a common cemetery for soldiers “died in the Holy war”. With the corresponding proposal to the Moscow city Council asked the sister of the Empress, the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. A special Commission, having considered the matter, determined under the cemetery garden in the village of all saints, redeemed from “the wife of the Colonel of Anna Nikolaevna Golubitskaya”. The transaction in the amount of 271 thousand rubles were funded thanks to private donations. The land was located near Sergiev Elisabeth refuge for crippled warriors, curated by Elizabeth Feodorovna.
the cemetery was originally conceived not only as a perfectly equipped place of burial, but also as a national “monument to the great event” – here was placed the Museum of the First world (which was not implemented). The first burial at the cemetery took place in February 1915. By 1919 there rested 581 officer (including 13 generals) and 17.5 thousand lower ranks. In the Brethren cemetery were buried not only the military but also of the Moscow sisters of mercy to provide aid to the wounded in hospitals and on the front.
“the Cemetery people-birds”
One of the most notable was the area of the Fraternal cemetery, where they buried the military pilots. Attending “cemetery people-birds” after the revolution, the writer Sergei Arefin described it as “cozy, quiet and peaceful” place.
“the oldest of aviators at the time of death was 38 years old. Most 23-25-27 years. There are young – 18-19 years old. Only two or three inscriptions say the usual “died”. Most “died”, “killed in battle”, “killed in aerial combat”, “crashed during flight,” said Arefin.
In the design of the monuments was used wings, motors and other parts of aircraft and spacecraft. There were, for example, a “Mall prop”. The dead pilots were brought here after the war. For example, in 1923, was buried here, the famous pilot Boris velling, member of the first Soviet long-distance flights.
the Destruction and restoration of the cemetery
the Last funeral at the cemetery took place in 1925. And after 7 years, the authorities decided to erase him from the face of the earth – according to historians, the instruction was given to Stalin personally. Bones in the earth remained intact, but the graves, they were leveled, and on top of them paved alleys. The Bolsheviks did not spare even their “own” – buried in the necropolis of the red army. The only thing that bothered Muscovites vacationing in the picturesque place of Leningrad Park – surviving a granite gravestone, which was installed on the grave of the St. George cross of Sergei Schlichter. He was killed in Belarus in the summer of 1915. According to legend, father Schlichter literally own Breasts to protect the burial. According to another version, the tombstone was just too heavy and strong for dismantling. Grave Schlichter subsequently allowed the researchers to establish the exact location of all other burials listed on the plan of the cemetery.
part of the cemetery in Soviet times housed a vegetable market, a dump and a Playground for dogs. And after the great Patriotic war, its suburbs began to be built up with houses. The question of the revival cemetery was supplied by the capital community for the laste the collapse of the USSR. In 2004, this place was converted into a memorial Park complex of heroes of the First world war. In memory of the fallen defenders of the Fatherland, a chapel was built and adorned with several monuments.
© Russian Seven
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