In some countries, against the red Army fought the guerrillas

History 05/01/20 In some countries, against the red Army fought the guerrillas

the Arrival of Soviet troops in 1944-1945, attached just before the great Patriotic war for the USSR territory and in the countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe has awakened throughout the anti-Soviet insurgency. It was attended by not only former Nazis and collaborators, but in General opponents of socialist transformations.

we Can only briefly mention Nazi underground “Werewolf”, which operated not only in Germany, but in those areas, which after the war were included in other countries – the Soviet Union (East Prussia), Poland, Czechoslovakia (the Sudetenland); and anti-Communist Polish “Polish Home Army”, which operated, in addition to Poland, Western Ukraine, Western Belarus and Lithuania.

“Forest brothers”

nowadays widely covered activities of anti-Soviet armed groups of “forest brothers” in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. At the peak of its activity groups of “forest brothers” consisted of up to 30 thousand fighters in Lithuania, 20 in Latvia and 15 thousand in Estonia. This number does not include sympathizers – those who provided shelter to the rebels, supplied them food, served them connected.

“Forest brothers” were widely practised individual terror against the Communists and members of their families. According to the KGB, declassified under Gorbachev, only in Lithuania at the hands of the “forest brothers” has killed more than 25 thousand people of civil population, whereas the forces of the NKVD, to suppress the movement, lost in Baltic countries less than 4 thousand people. The rebels had their agents in the Soviet government, and it was not only those who began to cooperate with them out of fear for themselves and their families.

“Forest brothers” had a horizontal network structure. Each unit was completely independent. “Forest brothers” acted in small groups of 5-10 fighters who committed acts of sabotage and attacks on the Soviettheir activists. This made it difficult to centralized control.

Mass armed resistance in the territories of Estonia and Latvia was suppressed in the late 40-ies. the longest it lasted in Lithuania. Only Amnesty ordinary “forest brothers”, declared by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1955, put an end to the guerrilla movement, although some rebel groups in Lithuania operated until the late 60s.

Not remained aloof from the movement of the “forest brothers” and the areas of Estonia and Latvia with a predominantly Russian population, included in 1944 in the Russian Federation – Pytalovo and Pechora. According to the article in the Latvian newspaper “to Conduct today” from June 12, 2013, the first “forest brothers” in the territory of Latvia was the Russian Pytalovo district.

the Less the public knows about the “forest brothers” in Belarus. It operated a centralized underground organization “the Black cat”. Its Foundation was laid by the retreating Nazi troops. It was joined by many former policemen, soldiers of the Kaminsky brigade and anti-Soviet partisan Republic Rossano. In the armed forces “Black cat” was attended by up to 5,000 people, according to the Belarusian filmmaker Anton Tsyalezhnikau, Creator of the film “Damned and forgotten”. In 1948-1949 the NKVD managed to eliminate the leadership of the Belarusian insurgents.


About the activities of the OUN—UPA* our audience know more than you about the “forest brothers”. We will add that her stage was not only Ukraine but also the neighboring States of Poland and Czechoslovakia, and South-Western parts of Belarus. In 1947 the Pro-Soviet government of Poland carried out the operation “Vistula” on the mass deportation of the Ukrainian civilian population from the border with the Soviet Union regions. It was settled on the lands ceded to Poland from Germany. As a result, the Bandera in the East of Poland have lost their social base, and the movement there ceased. In Slovakia acted gangs of the UPA under the command of Stepan Stebelskaya and Vladimir Sigeltion, which the Czechoslovak intelligence agencies failed to liquidate in the fall of 1949.

the Bulgarian Gorani

Although Soviet troops in 1944 has been enthusiastically greeted by almost the entire population of Bulgaria, the establishment of the socialist system in the country has caused widespread resistance. In the spring of 1945 began spontaneously to develop the first anti-Communist armed groups. They went into the mountain forest, and their soldiers are called grief.

the Social composition of the local was heterogeneous. There were former officials, officers of the Bulgarian Imperial army, but most were peasants. The squads first acted completely separately, at the local scale. Since 1947, begin to develop various underground organizations of the local. But single leadership Goryansky movement was created.

the Greatest scope of action of the local has reached in 1949-1951 years Gorane mainly attacked the Communist functionaries and guards, in revenge for their social grievances. The largest battles between the grief and the regular army occurred in June 1951 under the Sliven region, where troops blocked a gang of 100 men under the command of Georgi Stoyanov, but the latter still managed to break out of encirclement. Stoyanov was eliminated at the end of the same year.

End the active Goryansky movement was laid in 1954, when the authorities of NRB softened his social policy. Bulgarian historian Boncho Asenov measures the total number Goryansky militants around 7000.

other countries In South-Eastern and Central Europe.

In Romania was its small rebel groups. They were based mainly in mountain forests. Some of them were hiding until the early 60-ies In Moldova, there was no connection with them a small (50 men) “Black army”, which set as a goal the overthrow of Soviet domination and the reunification of Moldova with Romania. Its peak activity came in the spring of 1950, the same year she was eliminated.

In Hungary and the Czech Republic had separate guerrilla groups. After the establishment of the dictatorship of the Czechoslovak Communist partyAI in 1948 in the Western part of the Czech Republic there was a small underground group “Black lion 777”, committed a number of acts of sabotage. In 1954, its members were arrested and the leaders executed. The larger guerrilla group, mainly of workers – the social Democrats and the former Communists – emerged in 1948 in Moravia. It was called “Gostynska of the mountain.” After three years of struggle, he was liquidated by the authorities, the principal leaders killed or executed.

in Slovakia In these years, resistance to the Communists was headed by a former Communist and member of the anti-fascist uprising of 1944 William Ginger. With a group of supporters he fled to the mountains and tried to repeat the experience of the uprising, but in 1950 was captured and liquidated by the KGB.

In Yugoslavia the resistance to the regime of Tito had long supported the nationalist formations: Serbian Chetniks, Croatian ustashe, Slovenian “Domobrana”. But it was not anti-Soviet struggle since the 1948 Tito himself took an anti-Soviet position.

* – an organization banned in Russia

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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