History 05/02/20 For what the red army did not like his form in the Great Patriotic
In 1938 the people’s Commissariat of Defense adopted rules warm clothing for the red army in wartime. However, despite the exercise of care “Winter war” of 1939-1940 showed that the new uniforms are not very comfortable and bad saves from the cold weather. Especially useless was the “budenovka”, have changed little since the Civil war. In sorokogradusnuyu the cold head of the red army in them draughty. One of the results of the winter campaign was the introduction in the red Army caps with ear-flaps, copied from the Finnish soldiers.
the Beginning of the great Patriotic war command demanded a revision of the outfit. It was urgent to provide the red army soldiers, numbering by that time, 5 million people, low cost of uniforms. Unfortunately, it affected its quality. The widespread use of ersatz materials (e.g., canvas upper instead of leather for boots or glass instead of aluminum for canteens) has led to the fact that the equipment hasn’t always been this durable and practical.
When damage to the clothing was necessary to take in sewing, or Shoe shop, or exchanged for new. However, in conditions of war, especially in the first year, it was difficult to do. Given the intensity of fighting, form broke down regularly. So, a veteran of the great Patriotic war, Mikhail Chigvintsev, recalled how in may the victorious 45-th he “sported trousers with distressed knees”. What a farce, each shell of “Katyusha” weighs 42 kg box – 130 kg: in the process of loading and unloading once to monitor the safety of the form, explains the veteran.
At the initial stage of the war were to be found soldiers, who wore a tunic and pants with pads made of tarpaulin in the areas of elbows and knees. Such devices could significantly extend the life of the uniforms.
In the first months of the war Soldayou often fought in what they came to the mobilization points. It could be civilian clothes, or form, taken from the shoulder of a relative or neighbor. Problems with the uniforms could not be solved until the end of 1943. So, in Order for 1943 “on the call for the mobilization of citizens living in the liberated from the occupation of the territory” said: “the turnout at the Assembly point with him to have: Cup, spoon, socks, two pairs of underwear and surviving uniforms of the red Army”.
According to the memoirs of veterans, they were extremely happy when they were given an overcoat. She was not just indispensable in the cold season, but also acted as a blanket or mattress. However in extreme cold, would often haunt the poor quality of the tunics, which could not compensate even coat. The commander of the battalion 137th infantry division, Fedor lukyanuk, tells how, after leaving the environment postradavshie fighters had under their overcoats, and warm to wear German uniforms, and shoes in the German boots. “Built its soldiers, look – half as Fritz,” recalls lukyanuk.
But even saving the coat complained not all. On warm days the soldiers were forced to wear an overcoat in the form of “Skadi” – rolled in the ring and dressed over the shoulder that gave them a lot of trouble and inconvenience. True, those who got rid of a heavy burden in the cold season regretted it so much.
the shoes were a particular challenge. Tarpaulin boots in the beginning of the war enough not all soldiers wore boots and puttees. This fact is confirmed by numerous search expeditions carried out in Leningrad region and Karelia Republic. They showed that the vast majority of the dead soldiers of the red Army was shod that way.
the Shoes in combination with a canvas windings was extremely uncomfortable, heavy and in addition fragile. The recruits did not know how to properly wrap a leg that often lead to injury. According to the search teams, boots on the ground phase of the war was aboutespecen only the command structure, for soldiers they were rare.
As commemorate the paramedic 409 th infantry regiment of 137th infantry division, R. G. Khmelnov, very hard for the soldiers was the autumn of 1941. In that year, fell early snow, severe frost, and shoes the majority of the personnel of the thoroughly crashed. “I – continues Khmelnov, from the boot remained some of the top, and the fingers outside. Twirled footwear rags, while in one village found no old shoes”.
In this regard, the soldiers often removed the boots from the dead Nazis. Shoes for the soldiers of the Wehrmacht were made of genuine leather and lined with durable nails. Sometimes our soldiers took only the sole trophy of the boots and stitched it to the domestic Shoe.
still, until 1945 uniforms of the red army was changing, adapting to the conditions of war. Withdrawn from production that didn’t like soldiers or were too expensive, but something I podsmatrivala the enemy. For example, the leadership of the red army, in response to complaints of soldiers, was forced to abandon the glass jars: it was not just fragile, but also heavy material. Weight glass jar with a capacity of 0.75 l was 450 grams, and the weight came to replace them aluminum bottles did not exceed 183 grams.
until 1945 soldiers of the red army were provided with gas bag model 1939. Although the war without chemical attack on its supply and not removed. This piece of equipment weighed down soldiers, and many tried to get rid of it. Someone took a gas mask in the train, someone is simply thrown out, and in gas bags put personal items.
Not everything was in order and helmets, which by the beginning of the war there were three types: SSH-36, SSH-39 and SSH-40. The first two are no longer produced, but because of their large number they still suited up soldiers separate parts. In the sample in 1939 was eliminated the shortcomings of SSH-36, the so-called helmets”Hasanli”, but he was flawed, and showed that the CouncilSKO-Finnish war. Most importantly, it was impossible to wear a hat, and the standard woolen Balaclava is not saved from the winter cold. Soldiers in order to be able to wear a helmet on top hats often had to break down portolano device.
Experience the “Winter war” influenced the fact that the Red Army in the manner of a Finnish soldier put on his skis. Though at first they were uncomfortable and bulky. One of the soldiers of legendary unit “White devils,” he recalled about his first ski: “just one big bar! Here the Board took bent so all. These boards are often crooked”. This disadvantage is reduced speed and maneuvering qualities of the ski teams, which influenced the combat capabilities of the soldiers and increased their vulnerability to the enemy.
Another controversial attribute of a soldier of the red army in the Great Patriotic war was self-loading rifle Tokareva (SVT-40). Despite the shown in the tests of efficiency, many thought she was unreliable, bulky and sensitive to pollution. So she is not caught in the war.
In the soldiers ‘ household SVT-40 called “Light”: thus fighters emphasized her capricious nature. Comes to command the complaints were mainly related to difficulties that arose during the development of the rifle and care for her. After further verification it was found that the presence of small parts has led to a high percentage (about 31%) of output of these weapons out of action.
Even designer Vladimir Fedorov speaks positively on the work of Tokarev, said: “In terms of the number of self-loading rifles of the Red Army was the beginning of the Second world war more German; unfortunately, the quality of ETS, and ED did not meet the requirements of the combat situation”.
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