History 29/01/20 “Collective battalions”: what the red army was not supplied with food
a Favorite target of criticism of Soviet historians and publicists were “Arakcheyev” and the military settlements of the first half of the nineteenth century. However, few people know that in the Soviet Union in the far East in the thirties was created almost similar in design collective battalions.
1930-1932: the resettlement of demobilized red army
In the interwar period, the Soviet government is clearly aware of the threat from Japan. To strengthen the Soviet position in the far East could only be economic development of these lands, but wanting to go to the outskirts of the country were few. To solve this problem, on the border with Manchuria, began to resettle demobilized soldiers from all military districts. If necessary, they could almost immediately put “under the gun” Special red banner far Eastern army.
“Sending to the development of the far Eastern territories of the red army, Moscow was counting on the fact that they will support the struggle of Soviet power with all those who disagree with her politics, which, in the opinion of management of the state, there were many,” — said researcher Alexander Isaev.
January 30, 1930 the revolutionary military Council issued a decree “About participation of the red Army in the collective construction of the country”. The process went really red-the settlers faced enormous difficulties. In the Seaside area of 10 thousand person were not timely provided with housing. To bed them in first time, had in commercial premises right on the floor. Due to the poor living conditions the majority of visitors left the far East. By the end of 1932, in red army collective farms, there were not 40 thousand as it was planned, but only 1476 people.
1932-1936: a Special collective body of ODKA
due To the fact that the policy of voluntary colonization of the Far East demobilized soldiers actually failed, it was decided “put on earth” part of the army. This idea belonged to Kliment Voroshilov. In a letter to members of the Politburo of the people’s Commissar for military and naval Affairs, proposed the creation of a major operating areas a system of collective battalions, which would have been both economic targets and reference points in case of external aggression.
At the end of 1932 was deployed, the management of Special collective housing collective and three infantry divisions on the Amur river and Primorsky Krai. Next year, they added the collective cavalry division in Transbaikalia. The total number of military-farmers came to 60 thousand. Fighters of Special collective housing was to serve for 3 years, and after the service could remain in collective farms and bring their families. Assistance to soldiers was provided by civilian personnel.
“the Production staff of the division included assistant division commander, on the economic side, three agronomists, agriculturist, grower, animal science” — describes the current management structure of the candidate of political Sciences, Kirill Kolesnichenko.
Military training was administered mainly in winter, in summer the red army plowed, sowed, harvested food and materials. They had an apiary, pigs, and cows, were engaged in fishing. During the period of field work working day lasted for 14-16 hours.
the Practical results of the activities of the JCC was far from planned. In 1932, the crop did not allow the soldiers to farmers to even feed themselves. In 1933, the agricultural work was done more intensively, the plan of sowing was performed at 106% and the yield of grain amounted to more than 57 million kg. But this, in turn, very badly affected the quality of combat training is to improve this indicator failed and in the following years.
“We need to have some program of our combat training and it to improve agriculture. Until today we do just the opposite,” – said in 1934 the commander-CommissionR hull, Michael Kalmykov.
ultimately, the bias in favor of agriculture led to the disbandment of the corps. Production part in 1936 he transferred to the collective farms, and the military were engaged exclusively in their primary responsibilities. The Kalmyks in 1938 he was executed as a traitor.
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