History 27/01/20 As the spirit of the samurai helped the Japanese to defeat enemies
After the Meiji Restoration that began in 1868 and lasted until the end of July 1912, Japan renounced the isolation and the beginning of modernization in the Western manner, including the rearmament of the army and Navy.
the Spirit of the samurai
the Process of Westernization was by leaps and bounds, notes E. V. Verisotskaya in “Westernization, national idea and reality of Japanese politics in the Meiji era,” published in 2005. First, was abolished feudal fragmentation, due to the fact that the country was actually in charge of the powerful clans, all power is now concentrated in the hands of the Emperor of Mutsuhito after a series of victories of his troops of the new sample on a samurai militia. Japan opened ports to foreign trade, allowed foreign investment, to become the zaibatsu, the financial-industrial conglomerates, who worked on the country’s economy. Even changed the calendar.
was rebuilt the organization and armament of the army and Navy, a crucial role was playing firearms. Japan became a powerful industrial nation, vying for the lead role in the Asia-Pacific region.
however, the samurai tradition was not cast aside and forgotten. They are only slightly transformed. So, Bushido demands unquestioning obedience to the suzerain, in the era of Meiji it was not the head of the clan or the shogun and the Emperor, whose origin was erected to the goddess of Sun, Amaterasu-Omikami.
Useful cultivated Samurais contempt of death, fortitude in the battlefield, the desire to perform a task, regardless of losses. Officers taught Kendo — the art of the katana, a samurai sword. However, it was not a family blade, handed down hundreds of years from generation to generation, and industrial production, but essentially it has not changed. Moreover, the rifle “Arisaka” with fixed bayonet resembled the naginata — medieval halberd infantry and Marines are taught hand to hand combat rifle as naginatas.
the Samurai disappeared as a class, but their spirit and traditions have become part of the art of war new Japanese army.
pushing the boundaries
All these measures were very welcome in the XX century, the first half of which Japan almost continuously at war. Sino-Japanese war 1894 — 1895 years, at the turn of the century, ended with the annexation of Taiwan. Then there was the Russo-Japanese war 1904 — 1905 years. Contrary to popular belief, the Japanese troops were not equipped and trained better than the Russian, but their moral qualities and fighting spirit fuelled by the Bushido, was on top. The Japanese did not surrender and no retreat. In the reports from the theatre of war is recorded rather numerous “Banzai attack” and when the Japanese infantry was advancing in full growth only with machetes and their bare torsos. And this in a war where there is already repeating rifles, machine guns and buckshot. The annexation of Korea in 1910 was a matter of time.
Occupation of China in 1937 was made possible largely thanks to the reigning Japanese army samurai spirit of the Chinese was too much, and their weapons are not inferior to the Japanese, is that some types quite a bit. Imbibed the tenets of Bushido allow even ordinary soldiers to become unstoppable, fierce warriors.
Clashes with Soviet forces at lake Khasan and at Khalkhin Gol ended in favor of the USSR because the red army had more equipment and it was better than the Japanese, because the spirit of the Soviet soldiers were on top.
In the ensuing in 1941 the Second world war Bushido handy Japanese troops could not be more helpful. The lack of equipment and weapons, the Japanese bathed fierce fight for every piece of land, remember, though, Iwo Jima.
And samurai in its pure form manifested in the organization of the kamikaze units. Young people willingly and knowingly went to their death for the Emperor, and every flight was a ceremonial feature.
the final The second world war there were almost 4 thousand kamikaze pilots. Their attack on the Japanese data led to the sinking of the 81 American ships and damaged 195. Americans, result in different figures: 34 sunk and 288 damaged. Not counting those killed, 68% of combat injuries of the personnel of the fleet were the consequences of the kamikaze attacks, says statistics of the United States Navy. Even if the ship was not sunk, because the resulting attack damage in 60% of cases had to return to base for overhaul, which had seriously reduced the strength of the us fleet. And 40% of carriers have become almost useless due to the difficulties with take-off-landing carrier-based aircraft. Indicators kamikaze is still not exceeded even when using homing torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.
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