History 10/02/20 “Always run”: how many times the Germans tried to create the Ukrainians anti-Soviet organization
When talking about the participation of Ukrainians in the Second World war, the first thing you should consider — it is impossible to speak of all the inhabitants of Ukraine in General. The population of the Ukrainian lands is not uniform, their attitude towards the war is different, and even the transition to the side of the Third Reich could have different causes. In any case, the vast majority of ethnic Ukrainians fought in the red Army, and only the smaller part against.
“Nachtigall” and “Roland”
the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN)* had a long tradition of cooperation with the Germans. Ukrainian units participated in the fighting in the Wehrmacht at the outset of World war II. Was formed the Ukrainian “Legion of Colonel of the Novel Drying”. Was intended for acts of sabotage on Polish territory.
By the time the attack on the Soviet Union was formed two and sabotage battalion of Ukrainians. Battalion “Nachtigall” recruited from prisoners of war the Polish army Ukrainian nationality. Battalion “Roland” was composed of Ukrainians-immigrants. In August, both battalions were disbanded.
the Ukrainian auxiliary police
Initially, the Ukraine, and other occupied territories, the police from local residents was formed to maintain order. One policeman per hundred inhabitants.
Since 1942, the German occupation command began mass formation of police battalions, whose main goal was the fight against the guerrillas.
the Total number of formed battalions made up of 35 thousand people. A significant part of the personnel were recruited from prisoners of war.
German high command did not trust the Ukrainians, because acted against the guerrillas, they are in Belarus and Central Russia, which was the common practice of the occupation authorities. Distrust of the Germans was justified as desertion in the police battalions were common. Especially after what the Wehrmacht suffered on the Eastern front one defeat after another. Deserted as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)* and the Soviet partisans.
Even sending Ukrainian battalion to France did not help: and there they went over to the Resistance.
the Unreliability of a large part of Ukrainian policemen was due to the fact that among them are ideological nationalists were few. Most agreed to fight for the Germans because of hatred of the Soviet regime, or simply to survive. Therefore, their “devotion” to the Third Reich remained until the Germans won a victory.
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
the Ukrainian Insurgent Army was formed by OUN, at the beginning of 1943. When it became clear that the Red Army will inevitably come to Ukraine and liberate it from the Germans.
the opinions of the leaders of the UPA went about cooperation with the Germans. Some believed that the need to revolt, to liberate the Germans from the Ukraine on their own and thus gain international recognition. Others believed that war with the Germans means automatically to help the red Army.
In General, the UPA kept the Wehrmacht armed neutrality. On the one hand, there were, though few attacks on German targets. On the other — a lot of it and the facts of cooperation, when the “Bandera” shared with the Germans, intelligence, and those supplied for that weapon. The main struggle of the UPA led first with the Soviet partisans, then with the red army and the NKVD.
the Number of UPA is still a subject of controversy, as no confirmed numbers there. If to judge according to the NKVD, the number of organizations accounted for less than 250 thousand people. So much was destroyed, seized or were surrendered during the years of struggle of the Soviet regime with the Bandera. These data are provided in the letter of Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny from the 25th September 1956, who at that time was the position of second Secretary of the Communist party of Ukraine.
But in this number, especially in 1944-45, could include not only members of the UPA, but all who somehow could be associated with the Germans during the war in the Ukraine. And tens of thousands of people.
the 14th SS division “Galicia”
the Ukrainian division was one of the first formations of the Waffen-SS, which was created not from the Germans or “racial relatives” of the peoples.
Initially, the division gained only natives of the Western regions, those who before 1939 was not a citizen of the USSR.
he Commanded the division the Germans, the Ukrainians got only a few posts no higher than a battalion commander. As the division intended for the action at the front under German command, the nationalists refused to join it. But in the OUN hoped to use the service in the division for the training of private military personnel. Even dismissed rumors that the abbreviation SS in the name of the division means “Sich Riflemen”.
the Division took part in the battle of Brody in the summer of 1944. Once in the environment, “Galicia” from 14 thousand people retained only 3 thousand; the others died or fled. Again refilled the 14th division took part in the suppression of the Slovak uprising. Then it was decided to refer it to the forming Ukrainian national army*.
the Sumy division, etc.
the Wehrmacht, SS, SD, Abwehr and the police formed the Ukrainians with a lot of small parts, just a list of which will occupy not one page.
Christopher Ailsby in the book “Foreign legions of Nazi Germany” mentions about the whole Sumy division, which was formed in 1941 from the former POWs of Ukrainian nationality. Division died in Stalingrad.
In 1943 in Ukraine, began to mobilize so-called “help defense”. Recruited boys and girls aged 15-17 years. They had to be trained and to serve two years in support functions in air defense units. According to A. Karashchuk in the book “Eastern volunteers in Wehrmacht, police and the SS” just won about eight thousand, of whom a thousand girls.
In the book “Damned soldiers. The traitors on the side of the III Reich” Sergei Chuyev writes that after the German occupation of Yugoslavia, in Bosnia, in places of compact residence of Ukrainian immigrants, was created part of self-defense. Later separate groups were formed the 1st Ukrainian regiment. Which operated against the partisans of Tito and the “Chetniks”. After joining the red Army in the Balkans the personnel of the regiment fled.
Ukrainian national army
Ukrainian national army (UNA) was created by the Germans in the spring of 1945 by analogy with the army of Andrei Vlasov. UNA was an ally of Germany.
a Similar formation, called “Ukrainian liberation army”, has been created by the Wehrmacht in 1943. In the UOA formally United all the Ukrainian units, including the police and various support services. And although there were from 50 to 80 thousand people, as a Association, it never existed.
UNA is originally designed as a real fighting unit.
In its composition was to join the 14th SS division, renamed the 1st Ukrainian. The basis of the 2nd division was supposed to be the anti-tank brigade “Free Ukraine”. Also was supposed to include various small Ukrainian units, spare and police.
Create the UNA and no sooner had the war ended early.
* organizations are prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation
© Russian Seven
Featured articles Share: Comments Comments on the article “the”Always run”: how many times the Germans tried to create the Ukrainians anti-Soviet organization” Please log in to leave a comment! br>
Share on Tumblr