Contents page 1 — the principle of stability page 2 — “Essential elements were carried over from Austro-fascism” page 3 — “Austria has incredibly benefited from the fall of the Iron curtain” On a page read

TIME: Mr sandy Gruber, you would be behind “Austria-a model for success” a question mark?

Roman sandy Gruber: no, because it is a success model. Even if it looked like the first 50 years afterwards.

TIME: Newly. Initially it was speculated whether the country can survive is capable.

sandy Gruber: The discussion of the viability of Austria was made a little bit myself. Already in 1918, you could know already that the small States of existence are capable of. But one was shocked that the huge Empire was suddenly gone. And Austria lost the First world war much stronger than Germany, and here there was not even a stab in the back legend. But you didn’t get the worst heritage from the monarchy, it was the area with the highest people of the Habsburg monarchy’s assets.

TIME: What was the Problem?

sandy Gruber: a social and economic Revolution, and immediately wanted to. The eight-hour day was introduced, unemployment insurance and other social measures. Although to be welcomed, but they have to cost a lot of money. The has encouraged to go into Hyperinflation.

TIME: it was in Germany.

sandy Gruber: But not so dramatically and later. In a Hyperinflation, you do not need to in real goods escape, but there was in Austria at the time. In 1924, in Germany, they were available. In this respect, it was an Austrian error that triggered in 1919, this social Revolution and the state has increased debt. This has led to the feeling that Austria was able to survive. And you wanted to show the world that you needed the connection to Germany.

TIME: One has gambled away the Republic so?

sandy Gruber: part playful, part of the circumstances were not favorable. There is a good potential would have been there, it has not been used.

TIME: The First Republic failed, however, to their internal contradictions.

sandy Gruber: it is broken in the end. I would like to say that in Austria, the democracy is no longer held as in all the neighboring countries, with the exception of Czechoslovakia.

TIME: you have learned after 1945, from these experiences?

Roman sandy Gruber

launched by 2015, the Institute for economic history at the University of Linz.

sandy Gruber: I think so. Austria was liberated. Once by the allies. Then, through the elections in November 1945, the out differently than it had expected Stalin. His calculation was that the Communists would reach 20 to 25 percent and a people’s front government is a possibility. However, the KPÖ has only reached 4.9 per cent and the ÖVP absolute majority. That’s what I call the self-liberation of the Austrians, who chose a liberal, Western model. The third liberation is turning to the West and the Emergence of the Iron curtain at the Eastern border. Austria thus became the preferred target of the Marshall plan. No other country has benefited so Norway has got a per capita similar payments, had to pay back the money. Austria received around 13 billion shillings as a gift.

TIME: What is the most important lesson drawn from the First Republic?

sandy Gruber: From conflict to democracy, a consensus democracy. There was a basic consensus about Austria and how the parliamentary System …

TIME to look: … and it was social partnership.

This article dates back to the TIME no 46/2018. Here you can read the entire issue.

sandy Gruber: The was very much.

TIME: The secret of success?

sandy Gruber: This is too simple. The consensus in the Parliament was also important.

TIME: The social partners were sitting in Parliament …

sandy Gruber: … and in the government.

TIME: The Republic was under Red and Black split and the society pacified. No other country, with the exception of Japan, increased its economic power in such a way. The price was a democracy deficit?

sandy Gruber: There were many empty runs, but it was also a democracy deficit.