History 17/01/20 “Green army” Boris Smyslovskiy: with whom and how she fought

Among all the collaborationist structures that fought on the side of the Third Reich, this was the largest number of names. Finished as 1st Russian national army, it began as a “Russian training battalion,” but known as “the Green army special forces, Special division R”, “a Special division R”, Division “Russland”, etc.

However, its Creator, Boris Smyslovskiy, also known as von Regen, and as Artur Holmston.

From the guards officer to agent of the Abwehr

Boris Smyslovskiy born in 1897. He came from a noble family of hereditary military. Graduated from the Cadet corps, the Mikhailovsky artillery school, courses at the Academy of the General staff.

In the First World war proved to be a great officer for that award. In the Civil war fought in the ranks of the Volunteer army. For life has kept the hatred of the Bolsheviks.

After the defeat of the White movement appeared in Poland. Some of his relatives went to the service in the Red Army, but was later arrested and executed, as many former officers of the Imperial army.

With the German military intelligence Smyslovskiy started working in the 20-ies, while staying in Poland. Apparently the management is left to quite his job. In 1928 Smyslovskiy was trained in Military intelligence courses at the Department of the Reichswehr. This “control” was actually a disguised form of the General staff, which according to the Treaty of Versailles Germany could not have.

At the beginning of the Second World war Smyslovskiy, as a member of the Abwehr, was engaged in intelligence gathering for the Soviet Union. After the beginning of the great Patriotic war, he turned to the command of the Wehrmacht with the proposal for the creation of reconnaissance and sabotage units of the Russian emigrants. The proposal was received positively. 24 Sep 1941 in army group North in the Baltic States was created the first Russian volunteer part on the Eastern front — a training reconnaissance battalion (Lehrbataillon für Feind-Nachrichtendienst und Abwehr).

In the book of Dmitry Zhukov “Special headquarters “Russia” quoted from the memoirs of Smyslovskiy: “passed through my hands 4 generals, a team of several hundred officers and more than 60,000 ordinary soldiers of the Soviet army.”

Spies of the Abwehr

Developing active Smyslovskiy by the end of 1941, he organized six (according to K. Alexandrov) to twelve (according to S. Drobyazko) training of Russian battalions. Up to 15 % of the personnel were from among the emigrants, and the rest were recruited from prisoners of war. Gained not only Russian, were presented almost all the peoples of the USSR. The total number of units by 1942 more than 10 000 people.

In the training battalions the personnel trained to conduct reconnaissance in the Soviet rear. Thus the management of immigrants have openly stated that work in the interests of the Wehrmacht — only a necessary measure, and the part considered as the core of the future Russian army. The Germans, knowing this, were forced to put up with similar sentiments. The reason, apparently, was the high efficiency of the scouts. Although to give an accurate assessment of the work prepared by the battalions Smyslovskiy HR is extremely difficult, because in different sources the information is contradictory.

the fight against the guerrillas

the Wehrmacht was completely unprepared to fight a massive partisan movement in the Soviet territory. Though there was relatively a large force to protect the rear, but in the beginning all actions were improvisational in nature and to fight with the partisans attracted all who came by. Including the training battalions Smyslovskiy.

the Abwehr (according to some historians with the filing Smyslovskiy), it was decided to create a special unit, which would have led intelligence activities among the guerrillas, with their subsequent elimination. This unit was called Sonderstab “R”. It was headed by Smyslovskiy in the rank of major of the Wehrmacht.

All of the occupied Soviet territory was divided into five zones, with headquarters in Simferopol, Kiev, Chernigov, Mogilev and Pskov. In Warsaw, under the direct supervision Smyslovskiy was created “courses internal intelligence.” These courses trained personnel who were supposed to get information on the location, structure, plans, the leadership of guerrilla groups.

the Results have been very successful. As shown by the data (based on the German documents) in the books of John Armstrong’s “guerrilla war” and “Soviet partisans”, the German command knew about partisans too much.

in addition to reconnaissance sonderstrom “Russia” created by their own partisans. One of their tasks was to discredit the partisans among the local population: lipartiani robbed and killed local residents, burned houses, stole cattle. The second objective gepaticeski groups had a break in the partisan environment. With the aim of destroying leaders and subsequent liquidation units themselves “people’s Avengers”. And I must say, in this direction managed to achieve great success. Smyslovskiy became a Lieutenant Colonel and then Colonel. But at the end of 1943 the headquarters of the “R” was disbanded, and he Smyslovskiy arrested.

the Creation of the Russian national army

After the investigation, which lasted six months, Smyslovskiy was released and was even awarded the order. In the spring of 1944 he was assigned to lead the staff of special purpose (Stab Einheit z.b. V.), which consisted of operational intelligence at the rear of the red army. Smyslovskiy (under the pseudonym von Regen) using old footage of the immigrants that I worked with earlier, creates a new structure, received in the autumn of 1944 the name of the 1st Russian national division. In addition to exploration Smyslovskiy-Regen was involved in training the guerrilla troops leave the territory tos were engaged in subversive activities in the Soviet rear. Was engaged in the organization of the rebel movement in the USSR, prepared agents for work in the postwar period.

In February 1945, the division was renamed the “Green army of the special purpose” (Die Grüne Armee z.b. V.), Smyslovskiy under a new pseudonym “Artur Holmston” became a commander of the “army Green”. The nature of the work force does not change, it is engaged in the exploration.

In April Smyslovskiy-Holmston becomes a major-General, and the “Green army” is renamed the 1st Russian national army. All these renaming not significantly affect the structure and nature of the work. The war is coming to an end, and the defeat of Germany is inevitable.

the Army should March to the border with Liechtenstein (of 3,000 people, two-thirds were killed by allied bombing). In the night from 2nd to 3rd may 1234 people cross the border of the Principality of Liechtenstein. For them the Second World war ends.

For Smyslovskiy and his companions struggle against the Soviet Union will continue for many years, but that’s another story.

Cyril Shishkin

© Russian Seven

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