History 26/12/19 What Stalin did to the inhabitants of Koenigsberg after the Victory
Koenigsberg began to be occupied by the Russians immediately after world war II. However, pre-1948 immigrants from the Russian Federation had to share Kaliningrad with the rest of the Germans. How to get along in one city, the winners and losers?
Last the Germans
the Red Army entered königsberg from 6 to 9 April 1945. A significant part of the population of East Prussia by this time the Germans managed to evacuate by sea. However, in the Northern districts of the former German province, as the archives remained 130 thousand Germans – including 68 thousand in the city. At the Potsdam conference, these lands were ceded to the Soviet Union, and Stalin annexed them directly to the RSFSR.
for Some time the fate of the German population remained unclear. The Soviet government tried to prepare the Germans for the fact that in the future they become full-fledged citizens. For example, they had organized a paper with the telling title Neue Zeit (New time) 3 hours per day to broadcast radio. Remained school with teaching in German language. However, in October 1947, Moscow took the decision about the resettlement of the Germans in Kaliningrad Soviet zone of occupation in Germany. This process, no one crossed, and it lasted until the fall of 1948. Longer than any other in their historic homeland did not let the qualified experts, and the last 193 Germans left in East Germany only in 1951.
the History of cohabitation of Germans and Russian were paradoxical. On the one hand, there were conflicts related to the unequal position of the old and new owners of the former East Prussia. At the same time, in Kaliningrad region earlier than in other Soviet territories, was still hatred for the Germans.
the Russians and the Germans simply could not ignore each other’s existence, as early as 1946, two mx ethnic group of the Kaliningrad region caught up in numbers. In General was dominated by the “neutral” nature of the relationship. Ethnic communities preferred to live “in parallel”, not too delving into the concerns and problems of each other. Although the potential for conflict was considerable.
“Afraid of the foreign country, post-war devastation, feared to meet the remaining German population, all Germans were considered enemies” — describes the fears of the first Russian settlers, the author of “the Secret history of the Kaliningrad region” Yuri Kostyashov. According to the researcher, a typical was forced Germans to work, eviction from their homes, verbal abuse.
“the Russians acted as the active, the attacking side, and the Germans chose not to object, to extinguish conflicts, to tolerate even such an attitude, which was considered unfair,” writes the historian. However, there were instances of aggression from the opposite side. For example, in Chernyakhovsk German teenagers, recently held in the “Hitler youth”, reacted Communist propaganda, destroying the portraits of Soviet leaders in schools.
however, the Nations alike in the complexity of living conditions in which they were. The Germans lived in “limbo” state, having a presentiment of impending deportation. But there was no certainty in his future, and Russian immigrants – many of them left Kaliningrad very quickly, unable to cope with domestic difficulties.
Joint work in state farms and industrial enterprises were pushed by Russians and Germans to the mutual study of each other’s languages, although the Germans increasingly strove to master the new language of the “titular nation”. Another factor of cooperation was the economic context. An important source of income for the Germans was the sale of his property, carpets, watches, tableware. However, many Russian immigrants were unable to buy these things and by their own admission, went to the markets “as a Museum”.
Between representatives of the Russian and German communities arose and romance, but fate has arisen in shortcue a period of cohabitation of mixed families was tragic — spouses forcibly separated in 1947-48. Remaining in the region of German orphans were adopted by Russians and given new names.
© Russian Seven
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