History 22/02/20 “Word and deed”: how was working in Russia password tattletales
the Informers and informants of different caliber always disliked, but at the same time in our country since ancient times there was a whole service, which is based on denunciations. It was called “the sovereign Word and deed” — absolutely anyone can report an offence or crime, and would definitely listen. This required only to shout in a crowded place “Word and deed”.
Scammers have always existed
Vladimir Ignatov, researcher and writer, in his book “the Informers in the history of Russia and the Soviet Union”, wrote about the fact that the informers in our country was, is and will be. The reason for this is their demand — while there will be state bodies that are interested in information about the domestic enemies, as long will exist for citizens to become informants. Both on a paid basis, and “souls”.
the Writer noted that whistleblowing has a long history in Russia. In the days of Russ mentions the “unfortunate tendency” of people to whistleblowing — this is evidenced by the records of foreign travelers.
a Mass character snitching acquired during the reign of Ivan the terrible. The guardsmen informed the king that the princes and nobles scheming, intending to seize power, after which the nobles were executed and their property was confiscated. Denounced almost everything and all the clergy, military men, merchants, commoners. Friends denounced friends, relatives of relatives.
the Romanov Dynasty
“the sovereign Word and deed” acquired the official status after the time of Troubles, just with the approval of the authorities of the Romanov dynasty. Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich extremely wanted to stop completely any talk of Dmitry, which is considered the sole legitimate ruler.
Alex Roshchupkin, candidate of historical Sciences, in his article “the sovereign Word and deed” notedchal that squealing was a natural for serving people in the second quarter of the XVII century. In those days, the new government is faced with the problem of people’s perception of Mikhail Romanov as the only King. The historian noted that at this time, in different parts of the state appeared petitions and certificates to the address of the king and members of his family with “nepripojeny speeches”.
Analyzed the documents related to A. Y. Roshchupkin noted that in the framework of “Words and deeds of the sovereign”, there were two types of denunciations: the subversive speech of the Tsar and his family, as well as reports of corruption and crimes of officials.
Various reports of informers was sometimes trying to solve their own problems, or so revenge. Some things were purely political and quite loud. So, in the winter of 1615 in Belgorod boyar son Ivan Zabunov wrote Snitch on nobody Senka Calf house, who allegedly said “Healthy de b was the king Dmitry”. During the proceedings, the accused said that he did not remember because he was drunk.
a Similar case was the case of a certain Vaska Moose in 1627. Being away from a friend of the farmer Vaska began to sing a song about Tsar Boris, the incredibly scared of the owner. Guests of the peasant complained, “where to” and Vaska Moose put in jail.
In the XVII century there were quite a few competent people who possessed the ability to write denunciations on a professional level. That’s why people who wanted to communicate something, shouting in a crowded place “Word and deed” that attracted the attention of servicemen, which was followed by a trial. Incidentally, if people knew about the treason and insult of the king and not told about it, he was facing the death penalty.
At each corner of the informant
Under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich the cooperation of the authorities with informers has grown significantly. Best fared in Moscow: any incident immediately became known to the authorities.
Informants were literally everywhere. In The Cathedral the code of 1649 was expressly stated on the punishment of those who are not informed about some important event. By the way, was executed for it then, and relatives of the traitor, and their property was taken.
the enemies of the King and the Fatherland
Peter I Alekseevich, as we know, did not follow the traditions and principles of the Russian state, and focused on European countries. Despite this, the fight against internal political opponents, he led quite the usual ways — denunciations, torture and executions.
In the Article the military in 1715 it was said that this kind of punishment as the quartering relies for any kind of treason and the king. However, no actions are required, people were to blame for the “merely his will and desire to it.” For insulting the Emperor — was beheaded. For a riot or disturbance can be hung. Officials were punished according to the results of collective complaints, not only for corruption, but ” indecent and suspicious shadbush and Assembly.”
Under torture, of course, people have confessed things had not committed. The total number of denunciations increased to such an extent that Peter had to deal with it. Informers began to interrogate in detail and to open an investigation only if there is a good reason. In the beginning of XVII was introduced, the punishment for a false accusation.
since that time the denunciations fell into the category of secret and no one was shouting in the squares “Word and deed”. With the spread of literacy, the denunciations began to go on paper, so the “password informers” have forgotten.
© Russian Seven
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