History 03/02/20 “Withdrawn to reimburse, each family 5,000 rubles”: what were the conditions of resettlement of Caucasians in 1943

the Great Patriotic war became a real tragedy for the Soviet people and a disaster for Nations that are due to individual representatives of the leadership of the Soviet Union was branded “collaborators.” The Kalmyks, Ingush, Chechens, Balkars, Karachai, and many others had to endure not only the burden of protracted armed conflict, but also of deportation, often in the most remote corners of the country and not on the best terms.

From autonomy to deportation

the National policy of the early Soviet Union it’s fair to assume not even tolerant, and encouraging diversity of people . By 1933 there were more than five thousand national councils – the administrative-territorial units, in which concentrated minorities. In Leningrad were printed Newspapers in 40 languages and has conducted radio programmes in Finnish.

However, in the mid-1930s, whether on the background of strengthening of the state and lack of need to go on about the groups with a small effect, or by disturbing the expectations of a looming global conflict, national policy of the Soviet leadership began to change. Political and even cultural autonomy of minorities is gradually eliminated, the arrests began on a national basis.

the Climax was the resettlement of people from areas of traditional residence. Deported Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, poles, Finns and Germans. Then went to the Koreans. And in each case, such action was motivated by just the border of the country it was necessary to clean it from the “unreliable elements”.

the beginning of the great Patriotic wave of deportations gained momentum. And controversial events in the war only gave rise to the Soviet authorities continue the repression. In 1943-1944 years, the country held mass deportations of immigrants from the Northth Caucasus: Balkars, Ingush, Kalmyks, Karachays, Crimean Tatars, Nogais and others. And compared with pre-war stock relocation were already the character of “retaliation”: the whole people the fault of individuals were accused of collaborating with the Nazis and in fact were expelled from their homeland.

“I Propose to deport….”

of Course, it is undeniable that the collaborative movement in the Caucasus was extremely strong. Former prisoners of war in the Wehrmacht was created by the Azerbaijan, Armenian, Georgian and North Caucasian legions. Not few were those who voluntarily took the side of Germans and organized the anti-Soviet uprising in the North Caucasus, and after their defeat of the partisans in the mountains. One only territory of the Chechen-Ingush Republic since the beginning of the war to January 1944, was eliminated the 55 gangs, killing 973 militants were arrested in 1901 people.

However, according to the NKVD, the gangs consisted only 0.5% of the population. So how fair is it to punish whole Nations for the sin of the individual “elements”? From a historical point of view, this issue is closed: the majority of repressed citizens were rehabilitated. Even though the benefits that they are now laid, will not do the hardships that they had endured during the deportations.

in addition, the relocation of North Caucasians was waves, which in theory can explain not only strategic, but also political implications of deportation. Many historians still believe that the real motives for the expulsion of entire peoples was not so much anti-Soviet activities during the war, many prewar conflicts of representatives of the deported Nations and government, ethnic prejudices of the Soviet leadership and the personal whim of Joseph Stalin, as well as intrigue the party bodies.

it is Documented that in most cases the decision on deportation, the Soviet leader took “the offer” of one or another party member. Most often it was the people’s Commissar of internal Affairs Lavrenty Beria or the Minister of foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov. Signed by the last was adopted a document regulating the expulsion of North Caucasus and the compensation for their losses in the relocation.

Beautifully on paper

According to the decree of Council of people’s Commissars of the USSR of October 14, 1943, on the admission of migrants from the North Caucasus property, livestock and agricultural products, and conditions of partial reimbursement of the property in the places of resettlement of the deported were allowed to take some items: clothing, household equipment and food. The total weight of things on the ODA family could not exceed 500 kilograms. All the cattle, grain, houses and other buildings needed to pass, and they went primarily to cover state debts. Only the remaining part was due to the natural compensation to the new location.

the Resettlement of deportees, as a rule, carried out whole farms in vacant spaces in the existing collective and state farms in the Kazakh, Kirghiz SSR, Siberia and the far East. Those who drove less were placed in insulated tents. At the same time, the settlers were able to build mud houses for themselves or adapted to fit your needs vacant housing. Moreover, in special cases, they provided the construction loan within five thousand rubles per family for a period of seven years.

However, “beautiful” often it was only on paper. The eviction took place in the framework of special operations with the participation of thousands of NKVD, NKGB and the military, often in turmoil and confusion over three days could easily deport more than 100 thousand people. Often sometimes I make mistakes: for example, in the expulsion of the Chechens and Ingush to Kazakhstan were deported along with about 500 other people, mostly Avars.

the relocation and adaptation also took place hard. Had to ride in crowded cars and on the street it was cold. In 14 days the way many died from hunger and cold, and those who survived the road, we had to hold PErvoe time in a new place. After all, there still was nothing, and to heat the property – nothing.

“my younger sister went on one side of a wooden plank, to warm my feet, recalled in an interview with “Komsomolskaya Pravda” Karachai Bilal Baichorov. — She — left I — right. Other brother and sister folded up her different sides. Once I woke up this morning and think why mom’s feet are extremely cold? Began to bother her to Wake, but she did not respond. And we suddenly realized the horrifying truth — our own, beloved NAFISAT no more in the world…”

And there are stories – hundreds of thousands. Because the total number of deportees from the North Caucasus people almost exceeded one million. And, unfortunately, not every one of them lived to rehabilitation.

Ivan Resepi

© Russian Seven

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