Nature 19/08/19 Why the river Neglinka removed the pipe
On the underground river Neglinka know all Muscovites, and not only Muscovites. Buried in stone vaults, it still makes itself known names of streets and squares of our ancient capital: Neglinnaya street, Kuznetsky most, Trubnaya square, Samotechnaya street.
once Neglinka was famous for abundant fishing and clear water, along the banks of its ponds, gardens wealthy city estates, working mill here on the river in winter, took the ice for the glaciers, which was famous for particularly transparent.
What did not please the Moscow authorities scenic river?
the first Reason: environment
Neglinka Initially performed a very important function, serving as a natural defense to the Kremlin. The ancient settlement was founded at the confluence of the Neglinka and the Moscow river, the waters of which washed the fortress from two sides. On the third hand the ditch was made, which filled with water from the Neglinka. But Moscow has been developing and soon went outside of the Kremlin, occupying the banks of rivers. The moat has gradually turned into a dirty and smelly pond, the same fate befell the other ponds, which were built on the river. Butchers, taverns, public baths, markets, houses of city inhabitants – all this generated a huge amount of sewage that began to float in the Neglinka. River of the net turned into a real stinking cesspool. In the XVIII century, the problem became quite acute, especially for noble citizens whose homes were located in the Kremlin or close to it.
the second Reason: the flood
Neglinka – river small. In length it is only about 7 kilometers. Starts Neglinka in the area of Marina grove and flows through the entire historical part of the capital to the confluence with Moscow at the Kremlin walls. Despite its modest size, the nature of the Neglinka was willful. She has regularly overflowed its banks because of what Moscow had any real flooding. Water flooded the first floors of ZDrepresentations, basements, on some streets could move only by boat. Such trouble threatened every spring flood or a major rainstorm.
For these reasons, Neglinka and was stone-walled in the tube underground.
it Happened in several stages.
the eighteenth century. The first attempt to curb the wayward river, and at the same time and help Muscovites get rid of the stench of sewage was undertaken by Catherine the great. Then in the bed of the river were Packed piles, on top of it is blocked by a stone arch. Do not forget to arrange and drains for sewage. The output of this tube, the first manifold can be seen in our days with the Big Stone bridge.
nineteenth century. The first reservoir completely did not solve the problem. During large floods Neglinka was pulled from its stone prison and still flooded the Central streets of Moscow. A more permanent solution to this problem came during a massive redevelopment of Moscow, taken after the invasion of Napoleon and the famous fire of 1812. Then, as you know, burned most of the city. Was re-paved streets, squares, parks. Then Neglinka was enclosed in a stone pipe with a length of 3 kilometers (this pipe gave the name to the Pipe area and Pipe street in Moscow).
the City collector is constantly renewed and repaired and rebuilt. In addition there is a fascinating description of how he descended into the pipe Neglinka together with the superintendent, monitor the status of this important hydraulic structures.
the twentieth century. However, the underground river still made itself felt. Flooding worried residents until the middle of the last century. In the 1960-ies and 70-ies was built new reservoirs. Since the floods because of the Neglinka is no longer happening.
the Underground Neglinka manmade channel has become a place of attraction for many diggers. Under ground steel even led tours that are pronounced extreme character. The diggers say that traveling along the river Neglinka, you can learn a lot about the history of the city, as well as poznakoread development of construction technologies, ranging from masonry’s earliest arches over an underground river to the concrete blocks of the Soviet era.
© Russian Seven
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