Why the death of Pushkin is really to blame the doctors

History 17/02/20 Dmitry Alucinogeno in the death of Pushkin is really to blame doctors

the heart of the great Russian poet died on January 29 (February 10) 1837. All we know of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin died as a result of injuries in a duel. But was it possible to save it?

What happened with Pushkin?

During a duel Pushkin and Georges d’anthes, held on 27 January at the Black river, bullet latest, shattered the poet thigh and landed in the stomach. After that, the bleeding wounded man was transported to his house on the Moika. Two days later, on 29 January 1837, Pushkin died.

was it Possible to prevent such an outcome? A definite answer to this question is no. But there is a possibility that the death of the poet was not only injured in the duel, but also wrong actions of those around him, including the medics. What mistakes were made?

was Not given first aid

the Main Pushkin’s second in the duel was his friend Danzas. No him, no one else came up with the idea to bring to a duel of the doctor (which would be natural), and at least the minimum number of medicines and bandaging materials. The result is the wounded man at the site of the duel was bleeding, and the care he did not have.

properly transported the wounded

Here is what researcher Michael of David in the book “the Duel and death of A. S. Pushkin by the eyes of the surgeon”: “Patient… first dragged “dragged” to the sleigh… all the way from the scene of the duel to a sled in the snow stretches a trail of blood. The wounded poet was put in a sledge and drove on a bumpy, bumpy road”. This road lasted an hour and a half.

the Doctor S. I. Uderman in the book “Selected essays on the history of national surgery of the nineteenth century” (1970) notes that Pushkin lost about 2,000 milliliters of blood, accounting for 40% of the total volume of blood circulating in the human body. And nobody cared to stop the bleeding, traumatic plus shipping… In the end, failed immune mechanisms and began to develop sepsis.

Pushkin was lucky to go home and not to the clinic

Most experts agree that the wounded had to be hospitalized, because he was in serious condition. Perhaps the poet himself, told the driver to take him home, but he’d hardly in the condition to really assess the situation. His companions somehow didn’t insist on hospitalization.

Pushkin and his friends inspired the idea that he’s hopeless

As follows from the research of M. David, the first who examined the wounded, was Professor of obstetrics, B. V., Scholz, Danzas met by chance on the street. Making Pushkin dressing, along with Dr. Carl Santarem, he told him: “I can’t hide the fact that your wound is dangerous.” The same was repeated and came after some time his fellow court physician of Emperor Nicholas I N. F. Arendt and family Dr. Pushkin I. T. Spassky.

Instead of giving the patient at least some hope of salvation, the family was pushed to the fact that Pushkin was going to die so instead of fighting for life and health, he began to arrange his Affairs and say goodbye to their families.

Pushkin was required radical methods of treatment

Arendt was appointed to the wounded conservative treatment, is approved and his colleagues – known surgeons H. H. Salomon, I. V. Buyalsky and others involved in the treatment of Pushkin. As reported by William Shaak in the article “the Wound of A. S. Pushkin in the modern surgical lighting”, published in the “Bulletin of surgery” in 1937, the poet was treated with cold compresses and poultices, castor oil, with belladonna and opium. January 28, he developed severe abdominal pain and signs of peritonitis. When Arendt told them to put the poet enema, inserted through the tube the uid pressure in the pelvis irritating the damaged and inflamed tissue the doctors don’t take into account that a gunshot wound has also led to fractures in the iliac and sacral bones. After ehudsthe issuance condition of the patient put leeches that have led to more blood loss.

In the 49th issue of “Moscow medical newspaper” in 1860 one of the doctors who treated Pushkin, V. I. Dahl, not only a doctor but also a philologist, compiler of the famous “V. I. dal’s dictionary”, published in the memory of the note on the autopsy of the poet: “On opening the abdomen all the intestines were highly inflamed; in only one place, the size of a penny, the small intestine was affected with gangrene. At this point, in all probability, the gut was bruised by a bullet. In the abdomen there was at least a pound of black, coagulated blood…”

to Operate on the wounded, at least to remove the bullets, no one offered. For a long time it was believed that in those years, operations on the abdominal cavity is not practiced. But it’s not. One hundred years after the death of the poet’s great-grandson VI Dahl, head of Department of hospital surgery of the Kalinin medical Institute, Lev Zhuravsky, after a long study of historical materials of the period and historical data came to the conclusion that in Russia in 30-ies of the XIX century already carried out the complex surgery, including stomach, intestines. Such operations took place in the clinic of the Medico-surgical Academy, which was headed by one of the doctors of the dying Pushkin Christopher Salomon.

There is a version that the death of “the freethinker” Pushkin was beneficial to the king and then the power structures, so the doctors, in particular. Arendt, and did not exercise due diligence to save the poet – at least, they did not even try to resort to some drastic measures.

But the most likely seems to be that just nobody wanted to take responsibility for the life of a famous person and resort to decisive action to rescue Pushkin, even with a low chance of success. Therefore, the wound proved fatal for him.

Irina Shlionskaya

© Russian Semerka

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