History 27/12/19 Soviet territory Which Finland wanted to pick up in 1920
In the midst of civil war in Russia, the government of Finland, taking advantage of the confusion, decided to arrogate to itself a considerable part of the Karelian land. However, the Finnish Olonets, the Republic survived only for a few months.
the Territory is necessary for all
Olonets district, covering an area of nearly 4 thousand km2, has always played an important strategic value for Russia. Even in 1649, the young Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich ordered to build on the Olonets plain, between the rivers and Olonka Megrega fortress, which would serve as an Outpost, the keepers of the Northern frontiers of the state from the threatening invasion of Sweden.
In 1919, not Sweden, and Finland encroached on the Northern borders of Russia. In Helsinki the representatives of Karelian intelligentsia and merchants, with the support of the Finnish leadership established an Executive Committee whose purpose was to campaign in the Olonets region. Merchants and the government of Finland has allocated a company the 5 million Finnish marks.
the Entente plans of Finland for the support of the Karelian separatism is not approved, saying that such actions must be agreed with the Russian emigration and the government of Kolchak. Reacted negatively to this idea, and Finnish Prime Minister Lauri Ingman, not wanting to enter into conflict with Russia. However, on 17 April 1919 the Cabinet of Ingman resigned, and the new head of the government of Kaarlo castrén, fearing that it will overtake the British, gave the “Olonets expedition” green light.
urgency of the Finns and Karelians begins the formation of the volunteer army. For a short time managed to gain about 3 thousand people, mostly students, intellectuals and military. A few days after the start of operations, the separatists win the first victory. 23 APR captured Olonets, the next day taken the Alexander-Svirsky monastery, under ugrozath capture is Lodeynoye pole.
However, in the first half of may left to struggle with the occupiers, the red army troops pushed back the Finno-Karelia in the North, winning from them Olonets. And created on the eve of “Olonets government” is forced to flee to Velicu. From there, the leaders of the separatists delegates its representatives to the Regent of the Kingdom of Finland, Carl Mannerheim, hoping for his support. He wished them good luck, but refused the help.
Independence on paper assistance
who Was at that time in Helsinki white General Vladimir Marushevsky found that the Finnish government had their own views on the Olonets region. By a free plebiscite in some districts of Olonets province it was intended to connect these areas to Finland. For entry into Finland was “the Olonets government.” However, no official Helsinki, no temporary Olonets administration was not determined to have sufficient forces to bring the idea to the end.
In June, a Pro-independence programme was developed by the military and administrative measures for the seizure and development of South Karelia, which has received the endorsement of the leadership of Finland. Provided reorganized “Olonets government” new loans for 16 million Finnish marks was to return the natural resources of the occupied territory.
In the village Pogrankondushi passed the national Assembly, which discussed the issues of military, administrative, economic, financial and food character. In the end, decided to withdraw “Olonets Republic” from the RSFSR and to proclaim its independence. Also decided to appeal to the government of Finland with the request for the inclusion in the composition of the country “Olonets Karelia” and the direction of its representatives at the Paris peace conference.
I must say that the leadership of the “Olonets Karelia”, really controlling only a small territory, yet tend to the needs of the population. Solved food issues (due to the supply of products from Finland), GHDLa mail, resumed classes in the schools, the repair of roads. The new government introduced a system of benefits, paying every month to the needy at $ 100 and giving out rations. From not mobilized military established its own protective casing.
the end of the Republic
a flurry of activity “of the Olonets government” could not remain unnoticed. On the one hand, it irritated the whites, who demanded the transfer of the Olonets land “white movement”. On the other hand, are at hand hotbed of separatism prevented the Bolsheviks. It forces the Reds attacked “Olonets Republic”. After heavy fighting the red army troops captured Vidlitsa and forced a volunteer army to retreat to Finland.
Historians see the cause of the loss of control over Olonets region primarily in an inconsistent position of the Entente powers and Finland. It turned out that multi-directional actions and lack of a clear policy towards the occupied lands two sides only interfere with each other.
the Idea of creating a “Republic of Olonets” history of the conquest of Karelia was not limited. At the end of April 1920, the Karelian delegation of the provisional government at a meeting with representatives of the Soviet Russia demanded the latter to withdraw from five municipalities of the Arkhangelsk province. Again with the support of Finland, the separatists wanted to create spiced with North Karelian nuances state with its capital in Ukhta.
the red Army decided this issue, pushing supporters of the Karelian independence in Voknavolok. However, the difficult question of the Soviet-Finnish demarcation and separatism in Karelia had yet to settle by political means. 14 October 1920 between the RSFSR and Finland was signed Tartu peace Treaty, which the Soviet side has made a number of concessions to its Northern neighbor. These boundaries remained until 1940, when he began a new Soviet-Finnish war.
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