History 14/02/20 What became of the Kerch bridge, which was built by Stalin
the Idea of building the Kerch bridge is not new, in the second half of the nineteenth century came up with it the British, who wanted to put a railroad through the Crimea to Asia and on to India, to Delhi, thus combining their possession. Their dreams did not come true: the construction of the railway required money, and the political situation was changing.
Until the British rallied, the Russians annexed to the Empire of Turkestan, stopping at the border of the British possessions in the score and it almost ended in war, but Britain and Russia managed to avoid it.
Then the British decided to hold a road through the Caucasian mountains, and in 1901 the project was ready, the engineers even had a Telegraph at the bottom of the Black sea, but the construction of the century had to be postponed — the bridge across the channel was too expensive for the British crown.
the Idea of the British for some time attracted the attention of Nicholas II, but the looming war has changed the plans of the Emperor.
Stalin’s ideas, Hitler – their
the construction of the bridge Kerch – Taman returned during the industrialization of Russia. The General Secretary of CPSU, Joseph Stalin was going to not only build a bridge to the Peninsula, he conceived the grandiose reconstruction of the Railways in the South of Russia: the plan was the construction of the railway from Kherson in the Crimea and in Taman and along the shores of the Black sea in Poti. The project was created in record time, and it must be realized, if the country of the Soviets found steel you need brands and technologies for manufacture of structures. Needed had to be ordered in Germany, with whom relations seem to have been established. But it quickly became clear that Hitler his goal, Stalin ordered the construction of the bridge, he really was going to use in the Crimea, but he wanted to build a bridge, it is the Fuhrer going to the pento brassylate tanks and weapons for the future campaign in India.
the Construction began, the Germans
When the Nazis captured the Crimea, the design was promptly delivered to Kerch. Construction of the bridge, German engineers began in March 1943. The route was built from the railway station of the Crimean Pig to the spit, then started construction approaches near the village of Zhukovka.
it is Known that Stalin knew of Hitler’s intentions, but on the proposal of military to bomb the stores of equipment and structures, refused: he was hoping to use them to their destination.
the cable car is also the output of
the plans of the Germans was not to be. The red army went on the offensive, the construction of the bridge had to collapse For transporting ammunition in Taman German engineers managed to build the cable cars, it worked for a few months, each day ferrying across the Strait to eight tons of ammunition. In the fall of 1943 during the retreat the Germans blew up part of the supports of the cableway, but completely destroy it do not have enough time.
All the power — the construction of the bridge
subsequent history can be traced in the article of architect Mikhail Rudenko, “the Construction and destruction of the bridge across the Kerch Strait” (the magazine “Transport construction”, edition 6, 1991). All materials and metal imported subordinates albert Speer, the Nazis during the retreat of the left, the red army found a huge I-beams Payne and piles of u-sections and pile. The decision on the construction of a temporary bridge was made on 25 January 1944 the State defense Committee, but the design began much earlier. In the future, the bridge was planned to be strengthened by replacing some of the structure.
For the construction of the supports of the movable spans took three months for the barge was built two concrete plant, were scored 177 concreted piles with a length of 24 meters and weighing up to four tonnes, were used more than 12 000 cubic meters of concreteand 55 tons of rebar, 3 600 square meters of formwork.
overall, the construction of the bridge is the first phase took five months: the first train went from the Crimea to the Taman Peninsula on 3 November 1944. Designer Dmitry Terekhov told in flashback that construction managers traditionally stood under the bridge when it was tested. The Commission took the bridge, indicated that the team “overcame all difficulties and came to record” down to 30 meters of bridge per day.
From the difficulties to disaster
it was urgent to start the work of the second stage to protect the bridge from the drifting ice of the Azov sea. But the winter of 1944, the stop has changed: the front rolled further to the West, the Strait of Kerch remained in the rear, the supply has deteriorated, began winter storms, the viaduct of the bridge was Ledeneva, the wind knocked people off their feet, work difficult.
In a rush, the builders tried to put the ice, but managed to make only five. In late February, under the influence of a heavy storm, the ice of the Azov moved and ice fields went to the unprotected design of the Kerch ferry. The builders tried to blow up the ice sabers, bombard it with artillery, and even bombing from aircraft didn’t help anything, sometimes the depth of the ice reached the bottom. From 18 to 20 February 1945 was destroyed 15 of the intermediate spans of the bridge, they fell into the sea.
According to legend, Stalin, realizing that the face of nature man is powerless, was not to punish anyone, just took off the awards that were issued for the construction of the bridge.
After the accident for a while still discussing the fate of the bridge, wanted to demolish temporary, to build a new capital, but when it became clear that it will cost the post-war budget of two billion rubles, about it for a long time forgotten. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union between the Taman Peninsula and the Crimea operated ferry.
© Russian Seven
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