Another 21/02/20 public domainВикиги: why the formidable conquerors of Europe were afraid of a horse head
the Era of the Vikings, whose raids struck terror in European cities, lasted three hundred and fifty years: c 725, when they first appeared in the marketplace Denmark and until the XI century when in the battle y of the city of Hastings (England) they were defeated by Duke William the Conqueror and forever lost its former greatness. The expansion of the Northern barbarians historians associate c overpopulation of Scandinavia, the lack of land and tribal system Vikings, whose to know rich and giving the stolen loot. The decline of the Vikings tie c the spread of the feudal system and the Christianization of Northern Europe, which has made a contribution in taming the wild manners.
Vikings called different peoples living on the shores of the Baltic sea: the French considered them the Normans, Englishmen — the Danes, the Greeks, the Vikings, Russian — Norway. Ho whoever they were, they were distinguished by ferocity, courage and contempt for death. These stalwart warriors were forced to reckon with him all over Europe, earning fame and fortune sharpened swords.
They robbed Paris and Hamburg
the First attacks of the Vikings came to Britain in 789 year they attacked the County of Dorset, and then sacked the monastery of St. Cubert, later followed by raids in Ireland, in the North of Scotland, on the coast of France and Denmark. B 839 year they founded a Kingdom in Ireland, and sacked Rouen, came to Spain, Lisbon, plundered Toulouse.
Next, the looting targeted the Paris and Hamburg, North Africa, Spain, York, Vikings, conquered the Kingdom of Northumbria in England in 885 a year there was a great siege of Paris, which lasted a year and was included in all the Chronicles. According to the recollections of monk Abbona Hunchback, the siege was attended by 700 ships and 40,000 Vikings. The city surrendered after the beginning of the plague and gave a tribute to 700 pounds of silver.
B X—XI centuries, the Vikings belonged to Denmark, England, Lisandía, Normandy, Norway, continued raids in Galicia, Spain, on the land of Ancient Rus, they threatened siege of Constantinople and the invasion of Persia, but suddenly stopped Hiking, going to a settled life. O what do we know?
They were afraid of Hel and a horse head
According to pagan beliefs, after death in battle, the Vikings went to Valhalla to Odin, which indulged in feasts, died of his wounds fell into the Folkwang into the arms of the goddess Freya, the women came to the sacred mountain of Helgafell, but the saddest fate awaited those who died of old age or illness: he was in the underworld, grim Hel.
During the life of the Vikings were afraid of the curse that could bring kitschest erecting a pole with the head of a slaughtered horse; it stuck into the ground, directing the muzzle to the target. Saga say that kitschest did the skald Egil Skallagrimsson, to bring the troubles in Norway, from which it was sent. The skald was a Berserker and one day snatched the eye at the boon companion at the Banquet.
they had gender equality
Girls of the Vikings had to give consent to the marriage c man. Bo time of absence of the husband the wife became the owner of the estate, had the right to dispose of property, could be the heir of his father along with his sons — this writes the historian L. Black in “the Scandinavian woman in the Viking age”. Killed the woman was outlawed, rape was punishable by fine paid to the victim. She was not revenge for the husband’s business, and if she killed someone, replied the husband or relative.
the Woman had the right to divorce c husband if he thought the marriage failed, wife of Vikings feasted on an equal basis with men, a after death they rendered equal honors.
the Vikings were henpecked husbands
Despite the ferocious temper, the Vikings did not hesitate of the feelings and devoted lover of the poem, the most famous of which became the chant of Harald the Severe, which he had composed in honor of the bride Eliseu and visy Egil in honor of the bride Asgard. B customs was to go for women much: to get a hand Eliseev, Harald has committed INRon feats, al’vir Hova for Solveig threw Hiking, a Bolly killed a cousin.
If the wife died, the Viking, unlike Slavs, did not hesitate to cry, beat their Breasts, wept, and wished in himself to die; memory o wives honored, monuments to them and o they have composed poems.
they were brutal executions and torture
the Sensitivity of the Vikings co-existed c extreme cruelty due to the pagan faith. The most famous execution was the penalty “blood eagle”, which is mentioned in the Older Edda and shown on the Stura Gamescom sacrificial stone. This was subjected to executions of enemies and traitors, sacrificing them to Odin: a man put on a stone face down, with an ax broke the ribs, opened them and pulled out a light; the victim died from the shock. It is known that so were killed the Northumbrian king aelle II and king Edmund.
there was a death by hanging – blot, when people sacrificed to Odin in the woods. One of the names of this deity was Hangatýr, the God of the gallows; he hung not only people but horses and dogs.
the Most shameful punishment was the burning of the house, in the lean years practiced throwing babies on spears — so killing children who could not feed. For intractable enemies there was torture chamner, when a man chopped off the hands and feet, heal wounds and took him with him to intimidate, it is considered that this fate befell Norwegian king Mangus of Erlingsson.
They believed in zombies and had sex on corpses
the Vikings were afraid that if to bury the dead in violation of the ritual, the dead return in the form Ravenna (ghosts) or as an animated draugr who comes to kill someone else. So they carefully buried their dead, burning the bodies or burying them in the ground.
First, the body of the deceased were buried in the ground for 10 days, then dug up and buried again. If the dying king, together with him killed a slave – it is customary to describe the authors of the book “People and power in the Viking world” P. G. Steinsland and Meulengracht Sørensen: ee fed Datura, a dead man dug up, put in tent, built in pulled ashore the ship a at the funeral the men involved in c sex literally over the dead man and then choked ee, and then the ship burned, poured mound and threw a feast.
© Russian Seven
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