The major crimes of the red Army in the Civil war

History 22/02/20 the Major crimes of the red Army in the Civil war

Many of the atrocities attributed to the Communists in the civil war of 1918-1922., were committed or even irregular units of the red guard or the forces of the Cheka, the food of the army, etc special units. Nevertheless, the share of the regular red army remains a lot of shameful pages.

the Destruction of Yaroslavl

5 Jul 1918 in Yaroslavl started the armed uprising of officers prepared by the “Union for the protection of Motherland and freedom” under the leadership of the socialist-revolutionary Boris Savinkov. The rebellion was timed to the action of the anti-Soviet people’s army in the Volga region and the expected landing of the allies in Arkhangelsk (neither one nor the other did not take place). The rebels seized the arsenals, disarmed most of the Soviet troops in the city and seized the Central part of the city. They were joined by numerous volunteers from the civilian population of Yaroslavl.

the passivity of the rebels due to their unfounded hope for external assistance, allowed the Bolsheviks to quickly recover from the shock and concentrate forces to suppress the rebellion. Since the mobilization of the population into the Red army was announced just a few days before that, the Red army consisted mostly of parts of mercenaries-“internationalists”. In the attack on Yaroslavl took part three regiment of the Latvian, Hungarian and Warsaw “revolutionary troops” (the last included a separate Sino-Korean company).

the Commander of the Yaroslavl front Anatoly Gekker and head of the Yaroslavl military district Konstantin Neyman focused against the city’s artillery, and from July 13, took the methodical attack and began bombing from the airplanes. The rebel artillery was not. Destroying quarter after quarter, the red and squeezing the encirclement. The remaining rebels July 21, surrendered under the guarantees were in the city Commission for the repatriation of the German militaryplennyh led by Lieutenant Balkom. After the intervention of the German Ambassador Bothmer 24 Jul Balk issued to all internees (428 people), the Bolsheviks, who immediately shot them pursuant to the telegram of Trotsky.

of All suspicious persons (that is, “class-alien”) were herded into concentration camps. Working Kostylev, who sympathized with the Bolsheviks, testified that all those detainees who could not vouch for none of the “proletarians” were shot. During the battle for the city was destroyed and 80% of its buildings, 28 thousand people were left homeless. Were destroyed or badly damaged many monuments. The fire killed Demidov Lyceum and its library, a lot of Museum exhibits and archival materials.

the suppression of the uprising of workers in Udmurtia

All subsequent uprising, is here described, distinguished by its spontaneity and the fact that they raised are not “exploiters”, and the workers and peasants. One of the largest was the uprising, the core of which were the workers of the arms factory in Izhevsk and Votkinsk. On 8 August 1918, in response to the orders of the Soviet authorities to act on the front, up the workers of Izhevsk. In mid-August the Soviet government in the district was overthrown. In the rear of the Soviet Eastern front appeared the liberated territory. 31 August, the rebels took the town of Sarapul, which was the headquarters of the 2nd Soviet army.

However, the rebels failed to establish cooperation with troops of the army near Kazan. In mid-September, the red led offensive in the liberated area. The suppression of the uprising he commanded the chief of the 2nd consolidated division Mr Azines. 60% of his troops were international mercenaries. On 7 November 1918, the Reds took Izhevsk. Some of the rebels managed to break the connection with the white guard armies, where they fought in the special Izhevsk-Votkinsk working division.

After the capture of Izhevsk and Votkinsk, the mass shootings, which first engaged the red army. The next day after mastering the Izhevsk they shot more than 400 people. In the future, the terror produced by the forces of the Cheka.

the Shooting working strike in Astrakhan

At the beginning of 1919, the Astrakhan became a front city. Deteriorated financial situation of the workers. The city began the fermentation. On 6 March, the Bolsheviks cut the bread ration to the workers to one pound. In response, on March 10, the workers of several largest enterprises gathered for a spontaneous rally. A provisional revolutionary Committee, headed by Sergey Kirov prepared fully prepared. According to the protesters, he opened fire with machine guns. After that started the mass executions, the victims were from 200 to 4000 people. Engaged in terror of the 11th army directed the Chairman of the revolutionary military Council of Constantine Mehonoshina.

the suppression of the Tambov, Kronstadt and the West Siberian uprisings

Each of these uprisings – a separate issue. They were accompanied by mass executions not only captured, but also the civilian population. In the midst of the peasant Alexander Antonov uprising (1920-1921), 11 June 1921, commander of the Tambov province Mikhail Tukhachevsky issued the order on which the red commanders had the right to shoot without any trial and investigation of all unarmed persons in the area of hostilities, to burn houses, etc. Mass shootings of hostages were applied in those cases when the peasants refused to give guns and “bandits.”

So, on June 27 in the village of Osinovka red took 40 hostages and half of them were shot, after which the peasants gave to violence 5 “bandits”, which was immediately executed.

Tukhachevsky reported: “No shooting nothing. Executions in one village to another do not apply as long as they will not be held to the same measure.”

the hostages were taken, without distinction of age, including young children, removing them from their mothers and placed in concentration camps. The Commission of the Central Executive Committee noted this practice, pointing out its illegality.

Mass hostage-taking is practiced as pri suppression of the West-Siberian peasant revolt in 1921-1922. the Total number of dead farmers as participating in hostilities and the civilian population, incalculable. The account should be conducted, apparently, in the tens of thousands. After the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921, was shot at least two thousand people. All these operations were carried out by regular units of the red army.

the Use of chemical weapons in densely populated areas

Chemical weapons were first used by commander of the Ukrainian group of the Soviet troops left socialist-revolutionary Muravyov Mikhail in Kiev in February 1918. Then Tukhachevsky used chemical bombs against the rebellious peasants in the Tambov region. The suppression of Yaroslavl (1918) and Kronstadt (1921) rebellions chemical munitions were also prepared, but their use was prevented by weather.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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