History 20/01/20 That it was impossible to print in the Soviet press in the Great Patriotic
During the great Patriotic war to the strictest controls were subjected not only letters from the front, but the print edition. But if the letter was censored in order to control moods and to conceal information that would cause agitation of the population, printed publications have become the mouthpiece of Soviet propaganda, which was to inspire the population to fight the invaders and to instill in people confidence in victory.
the Chief censor, Glavlit
In each region of the USSR worked as the Regional Department on Affairs of publishing houses and literature – Oblit, which were submitted to Glavlit. Each oblate was the state commissioners who worked in each area, followed by publications in the Newspapers and controlled the production of leaflets, posters and radio. Authorized controlled library and withdrew the pre-revolutionary literature – about this in the “Censorship of the printed press in Kursk region at the beginning of the great Patriotic war,” writes historian Alexander Romanovna Bormotova.
the entire population with the outbreak of war was obliged to surrender their radios, and could extract information only from public sources.
early In the war the main objectives of the Glavlit and Oblomov was the observance of state secrets; forbidden to publish information about the mobilization, in addition to the official orders, information about the defence industry, on enterprises and on the amount of labor, it was impossible to specify the names of the factories, to write about the plans and timetables for their implementation. It was impossible to specify the locations of military units, give information about the unrest of the population. In any case, no materials were published lauding the Nazis, or sabotage. Restrictions were imposed on information about the plight of servicemen and their families, and was completely excluded personal ads posting, so they could communicate saboteurs and espionageones. For the same reason it was forbidden landscape photography – they could be a special sign.
Under the ban got the description of the specific military operations, weaponry, interaction of the armed forces with each other, information about the highway systems, Railways, stations, airports, ports, shelters and statistics on the number of inhabitants of the Soviet Union.
the photo was removed industrial plants, constructions, ports and railway stations, viaducts and bridges, as well as names of plants, factories, enterprises, was smeared and retouched all pointers settlements. Separate orders within the Glavlit were not allowed to call the military rank of the chiefs of garrisons. In addition, under the ban got the images of the destroyed objects – cities, factories, are able to cause among the population of the excitement.
After the local newspaper published, their content was analyzed at the region level, and then reviews publications received in Glavlit.
All from the front – through the sovinformbureau
a Special role in the Soviet propaganda was in the Soviet information Bureau, organized on June 24, 1941. That its structure was controlled by military journalists and photographers. After the negatives came in the Sovinformburo, the experts have evaluated them in terms of censorship, but also from the point of view of the use of photos for propaganda purposes (the historian A. Protopopov, the article “the Soviet information Bureau as an instrument of ideological policy of the USSR”).
the Photos are often subjected to retouching. To this end they printed and added the details, or Vice versa, removing individual items, using ink and gouache, and then retake to get a print, who went to the newspaper.
In print was forbidden to put photos of the commanders and partisans – in this case, retouching subjected to individual figures or faces, after work of the Retoucher, they disappeared from the photos. Similarly, disappeared from photographs people, mired in treachery, defectors, have fallen in the service of the Nazis.
Sometimes for the manufacture of pLakatos used collages – the photos of the red army were printed, and then the pieces were cut, assemble, dorisovyvali was missing parts, again took pictures, and got a new picture.
If needed to hide the details of the new weapons, the photo was printed and perefotografirovat, sharpness was lost, details were impossible to consider.
well-Known work of retouchers
the Most famous picture that has undergone a retouch, was the photo of Yevgeny Ananevich khaldei, where the soldiers plant a flag of Victory over the Reichstag. The retouching in this photo was intended to enhance the dramatic effect – added a smoky sky and for some reason decided to remove the trophy clock with the wrists of detained human rights defender Ismailov. The photo and had to see the whole world, and the allies could accuse the Soviet military in the looting.
Author Yuri Kozyrev, who knew of the Chaldeans, was thinking about another photo of the wizard where the victorious soldiers were trampling foot Nazi banner, and the burned Gothic castle. Chaldea was often asked to admit that the flag he planted on the road especially. But he joked: “No, but I burned down the castle!”
In the archive of the famous Soviet photographer Valery Vsevolodovich Fominsk was a collection of photo collages and retouched images of the red army. Among them – anonymised airfields, columns of red on the streets that are impossible to know, and even the parade on the red square, is composed from two different pictures: in fact, troops built the front four of a kind, and image of Marshal Zhukov, taken from another picture, which erased the figures that surrounded the commander.
this method to “improve” the photos used after the war. For example, as happened with the picture of Victor N. Baltermants “the Mountain”, where inhabitants of the village of bagerovo, near Kerch identify relatives killed by the Nazis. The fact that in the 1960s, years this picture has become very popular in the West. He “discovered” the Italian Cayo Garruba, whichwas it in the archive of photographer and asked me to give him. When Baltermants made a new print from a negative, he replaced the sky in a storm, giving the picture even more tragic. This picture became famous in the Soviet Union until 1975, when the Soviet people celebrated the 30th anniversary of the Victory.
© Russian Seven
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