History 11/01/20 Pechenegs: what happened to the enemies of Russia
the Tactics of the Pechenegs was simple. They are rapidly attacked villages, caused panic, killed the defenders, stuffed prey their bags and disappeared. They did not aim to settle in the occupied territories.
First, the Pechenegs raided the Byzantine Empire, and then, around the second half of the eleventh century, crossed the Danube.
the Pechenegs were pagans. Bon – religion of Tibetan origin was native to them. Wash didn’t like. The hair is not clipped, braided them into long black braids. On his head wore a cap.
Melted through the rivers, using specially stitched leather bags. Inside were placed all the necessary ammunition, and then it was sewn so tightly that there hasn’t been a single drop of water. Their horses were famous for their speed. They easily overcame the large space. Arrows soaked in snake venom has led to the imminent death even in mild scratch.
the basis of the diet was millet and rice. Pechenegs grits cooked in milk without salt. They milked horses, and drinking water instead of Mare’s milk, raw meat is not fried and is put under the saddle, so it was warm. Was treated with infusions of various steppe grasses. Many of them could shoot a bird on the fly .
the Oath of allegiance they brought to each other by piercing the finger and drank a drop of blood.
the Tribes of the Pechenegs lived in the Volga steppes, and then populated the territory in the Urals, from where they subsequently went to the West.
War with the Russian princes
In the Nikon chronicle one can find the story about the first encounter of the troops of the Kievan princes Askold and dir with the Pechenegs in Transnistria.
Igor Rurik, ascended the throne, made peace with the Pechenegs, but they, despising such contracts, have undergone extensive March through Russia. So Igor Rurikovich were again engaged them in battle. As a result, the Pechenegs left in the steppe.
Exploration of PEchenigov worked well.
the Pechenegs was good intelligence. When Svyatoslav and his army went on a trip to Bulgaria, the Pecheneg Horde suddenly besieged Kiev. Townspeople defended him. Russian scout, who knew the Pecheneg language, was able to get through their cordon, to cross the Dnieper and to call for help Governor of Pratice. He immediately rushed to the aid of the besieged. The nomads decided that the Prince’s troops back, and began to flee, but near the river Lybid stopped and sent to the Governor messengers to find out whether or not this is Svyatoslav. The Governor told them that it was his advanced units, and behind them the main. The Pecheneg Khan immediately became a friend and offered a gift – a sword and a horse.
While there were negotiations, Sviatoslav was able to send his troops against the invaders and to drive them far back.
the Pecheneg Khan Smoke defeated the son of Svyatoslav
the Pechenegs had Sviatoslav able to win only when he returned from Byzantium campaign. Near the Dnieper rapids and the Pechenegs organized several ambushes and killed all the Russians, including Prince. Khan Kurya made of his skull the gold Cup and boasted this trophy before the other Pechenegs.
the Eldest son of Svyatoslav, Yaropolk eleven, under the command of his Regent Swanilda avenged his dead father in 978 and imposed on the enemy a serious toll.
Russian “Serpent ramparts”
Protection from attacks of the nomads were large fortifications – “Snake rolls”. Russian organized around the clock not only on trees, but and sent out reconnaissance units far in the steppe.
In 988 Prince Vladimir tried to negotiate with the Pechenegs, attracted some of the princes to his side. But two years later, other Pecheneg princes again raided Russian territory, causing great harm. The response was immediate: Vladimir and his army defeated the Pechenegs completely. Two years later, the Pechenegs were again collected an army and stood near the river Trubezh. Knyahard troops, alerted by intelligence, focused our attention on the opposite Bank. Pecheneg soldier called to fight the Russian athlete Yana. Russian won, and the army, inspired by this victory, attacked the Pechenegs, turning them to flight.
the Last RAID of the Rus under Yaroslav the Wise
After the death of Vladimir Pechenegs supported Svyatopolk, and Yaroslav’s victory had mine on two fronts. In the battle of Lyubech Pecheneg troops did not participate in the battle because their troops Yaroslav divided the lake that they did not cross.
In 1036 was the last battle. When Yaroslav was in Novgorod, the Pechenegs besieged Kiev. But Russian Prince was able to return to the battlefield and to organize a defense. The Pechenegs had been attacked on all fronts. The Russian counterattack was a surprise to them. The battle lasted all day, but Yaroslav, though with great difficulty, could win.
Where did the Pechenegs
the Remains of the Pechenegs went deep in the desert and never had any intention to attack Russia. Their leader is the Prince of the Galleries attacked Bulgaria, then the Byzantine Empire. In the continuous battle his army had lost some men were exhausted and gradually fell apart. Some of the survivors went on to serve as mercenaries in the Byzantine, Hungarian and Russian troops. Others have moved to the South-East, where it merged with other nationalities.
the Modern descendants of the Pechenegs
the Pechenegs became the progenitors of karapetkov, Bashkirs, Gagauz (Turkic people living in Bessarabia, Odessa region of Ukraine, on the territory of Moldova, in the Autonomous territory of Gagauzia). From the Pechenegs traces its history of a large Kyrgyz family Bacen.
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