27/01/20 the history of Kholodny Yar Republic: what has become of “state” of the Cossacks in Ukraine
During the Civil war, the Ukraine was a “patchwork quilt” – in addition to the red and white here hosted dozens of chieftains, at times involving a lot of territory. Longest resisted Soviet power, so-called Kholodny Yar Republic – peasant-Cossack “state” with a population of 30 thousand people.
the birth of the Republic
Urochishche kholodnyy Yar was on the territory of Cherkassy district of Kiev province. In these places, sung by Taras Shevchenko, Cossacks Haydamaky once staged a Koliivshina – a bloody uprising against the poles. Remembering the free traditions, local farmers first banded together for protection Matreninskaya of the monastery, and in April 1919 they rebelled against Soviet power. Led a revolt of the 25-year-old Vasily Chuchupa – the son of a farmer from the village of Millers who have received combat experience in the First world war. A key role in the success of the uprising was played by the assistance provided by the cavalry of the Kuban ataman Uvarov, by which holodnoy took neighboring Chigirin. But then they had to retreat – fortunately, it was where. The local landscape could not be better suited for guerrilla warfare: the thick forests and swamps interspersed with deep ravines. The rebels took refuge in the caves.
Chuchupa called controlled territory, not the Republic, and “justice”. The government headed by him and his rebel brethren of the Committee was extended to 8 crowded villages. From “green” hordes of Nestor Makhno holodnoya of distinguished commitment to the ideas of Ukrainian nationalism. Researchers Peter Oreshkin, Yuri Vasilyev even call this peasant Republic “the personification of petliurism”.
In the rear red and white
the Cold Yar recognized the authority of the directory of Ukrainian people’s Republic, but geographically it’s always been the enclave. The main part of UkrAiny at this time have consistently been a busy first red, then white and then red. Next to Kholodny Yar government there were similar education, however, less long-lived – such as the Republic of the Black Forest, Maevskaya, Medvinskaya Republic and the other smaller. And the main rival of Cucuface was the “red” Kotsur chieftain – the leader of the so-called “Chigirinsky Soviet republics”.
In March 1920, the army of the Cold Yar joined the Steppe division of the UNR. In the same month, Vasily Chuchupa committed suicide in the vicinity of his native village when he was attacked by the red army. In September, the chief ataman of the Cold Yar became the commander of the Steppe division Konstantin Pestushko. However, a month later, he resigned, having moved with his cavalry on the Ekaterinoslav.
the Separation of powers detrimental to the future prospects of the rebels. After the Soviet-Polish war and Wrangel’s departure to the Bosphorus from the Bolsheviks there was no “external” opponents, and they proceeded to “clean-up” the last pockets of resistance in the Ukraine. In September 1921 the Cold Yar could connect with Makhno, but the “father” of the Cossack Republic recaptured red. After that, it took security officers. Part leader persuaded them to surrender, promising Amnesty (later surrendered were shot), against the remaining held a special operation.
In September 1922, the KGB organized in Zvenigorod “Congress leader”, all of which were arrested and taken to jail Lukyanovskoe in Kiev. 2 Feb 1923 Kiev provincial revolutionary Tribunal has issued several active workers of the country a death sentence. However, they do not have to wait for the execution. On 9 February, the prisoners stole the guard’s gun and took office jail premises.
“Four hours of continued fighting, but to break through failed, writes historian Valentin Squares. – When out of ammunition, the chieftains parted among themselves, began in the middle of the hallway in pairs, face to face, and let the laste bullets to each other in the heart. Exactly finished the last fight of the Nikolaev and Kholodny Yar chieftains”.
In 2016, the ataman of the Cold Yar and the Black Forest was officially rehabilitated. The ruling in Kiev, the regime recognizes them as “fighters for independence of Ukraine”.
© Russian Seven
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