History 13/02/20 How many a day spent Russia in the First World war
the First world war, beginning on August 1, 2014, involving the slaughter of 33 States with a total population of 1.5 billion people. Russia fought on the side of the Entente against Germany, suffered heavy losses, which she is not compensated for reparations and indemnities from the losers as the Bolsheviks signed with Germany a separate peace, depriving the Russian laurels of the winner and money. By the way, the last tranche of reparations Germany paid in 2010, € 70 million.
the Economy goes bad
Russia to war was not ready, and that became clear in 1914 when this topic was discussed on pages of Newspapers of different political directions. At the beginning of the war, Russia lost the Polish of a developed industrial area and port enterprises of the Baltic States.
the War demanded huge amounts of money: if the first day of fighting had cost 12 million gold rubles to the beginning of the February revolution of 1917, this amount increased to 55 million gold rubles a day. Two weeks of the war cost the entire budget of the army and Navy for a in 1913. The war took 1/3 of national wealth in 1913, amounting to 16.4 billion rubles. the Total amount spent by Russia in the First world war, Katsenelenbaum defines 48 bn (including RUB 8 billion in gold to pay for war orders from abroad).
Theft quartermasters and overpricing by the industry affected the cost of warfare. For example, a Shoe factory in Kimry has increased the selling price 2 times on the shoes for the army, and this was no exception, rather the rule.
Rail service was disrupted, the skipping of trains at the front in the first place led to many hours of delay even Express trains. A civilian cargo could stand without movement for weeks.
putting the economy on a war footing was active, but messy, without a plan. By the end of 1916 on defense worked 3860 enterprises with a total population of 2.1 million people with a total of 4698 businesses with 2.4 million employees. To replace the mobilized men worked women and teenagers.
the war was met poorly. For example, from the first days of the war the production of shells lagged behind the plan, which led in 1915 to the “slug famine” of the Russian artillery.
Civilian consumption in the first year of the war had declined by a quarter in 1916 – already 52%. However, in St. Petersburg and other major cities, worked the restaurants, cabarets and other entertainment venues.
records of the Financial University under the government of the Russian Federation stated that the First world war slowed down the already slow arrival of capitalism in Russia and upset the economy, not allowing to solve a single pressing issue, including the agrarian.
finances sing romances
As it was written pre-war specialist in the Finance Professor Bogolepov, “the usual methods of surveying the extraordinary resources of loans and taxes are partly due to the colossal military expenditure of the insolvent”. And the only way – the issue of paper money. With that, the Russian Empire was no delay, the machine worked continuously during the war years the volume of paper money increased by 6 times. Inflation has grown by leaps and bounds – by 1917 the purchasing power of the ruble was 25 to 27 cents. Gold reserves declined. In 1913, it was 1684 tons of gold, valued at 2175,7 million gold rubles. The beginning of the Civil war, gold remained around 1,000 tons. In the First world in turnover was 381 tons of gold, the rest was stored in centralized funds.
the Internal military loans did not bring the right amount of money. So, released the Provisional government in 1917, “a Loan of freedom” yielded only 4 billion.
Foreign loans were not saved. In 1914-1917 external loans given only 19.2% of total loan funds (in 1904-1905 they had 51.8%). However, over the years of the First worldthe new public external debt grew by 45 billion rubles.
Prices in Russia increased by 100%-500%. In the autumn of 1916 broke the bread crisis. From 1916 to 1917 the state grain reserve was reduced 20 times. Was introduced rationing of foodstuffs – card.
Historians and economists believe that grain stocks were sufficient, but the authorities failed to seize their producers and establish supply from Siberia to the European part.
Military crisis of 1916 in Russia caused the reduction of GDP by 10% and income per capita in 1917-1919 fell by 50%. By the end of hostilities in Russia produced only 40% of production pre-war level, estimated by the Professor of the Russian economic school Markevich and Stanford University Professor Harrison.
the First world war ended on March 3, 1918.
© Russian Seven
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