As the Russian a second time gained and lost Port Arthur

History 16/02/20 As the Russian a second time gained and lost Port Arthur

In 1894 the war with Japan, China was forced to grant Japan the Liaodong Peninsula with a naval base Port Arthur. However, due to a sharp diplomatic pressure from Germany, France and Russia, Japan was forced to return Liaodong Peninsula to China. And in 1897, the Russian squadron annexed Port Arthur with the adjacent Peninsula. The annexation was retroactively issued in the form of a Treaty with China in 1898, according to which Russia paid to the Chinese dignitaries of the then 750 thousand rubles. This assertion of Russia in the Yellow sea caused a storm of indignation, especially in Japan.

Russia has long wanted to establish itself in the far East Asia. Vladivostok because of its Northern location too did not fit. In 1891 it was decided to build the TRANS-Siberian railway to Vladivostok, and the southern section would pass through Harbin. It was also planned to conduct a railway South from Harbin to Port Arthur. Emperor Nicholas II is very sympathetic to the expansion plans of Russia on the coast of East Asia. In the opinion of historian S. S. Oldenburg Nicholas II saw the historical mission of Russia to gain a foothold in the far East Asia: northeastern China, Korea, Mongolia. All the projects of Russian business and court circles, which aims enshrined in these regions, received support the last Emperor.

spheres of influence in these lands also claimed by Japan. The war occurred in 1904-1905 between Russia and Japan for dominance in Manchuria, Korea, Sakhalin, and ended, as we know, the failure of Russia. To Japan moved to Port Arthur, South Manchuria railway, South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. However, the Chinese Eastern railway (CER) remained in the hands of Russia. There until 1920 was act of the Russian administration.

In 1924, the USSR and China agreed on joint use of the CER. However, the regular provocations of the Chinese military did a regime for sharing difficult. Even more worsened the situation with the occupation of Manchuria by Japanese troops in 1932 and the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo. In 1935 the USSR and Manchukuo signed the contract for the sale of the CER by the Soviet government to the authorities of Manchukuo for 140 million yen.

During the Second world war, the Soviet Union raised the issue of the transfer of the CER and Port Arthur, along with former Russian possessions on the southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. This request was considered at the Tehran conference (28 November – 1 December 1943) is true, the leaders of the US and the UK. It was stipulated that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan no later than three months after the end of the war in Europe. The demands of the Union was confirmed at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences in 1945. August 14, 1945, Stalin and Chiang Kai-shek signed an agreement on joint use of the base Port Arthur, CER and SCR for a period of 30 years.

After the civil war in China, where the Communists triumphed over Chiang Kai-shek, Stalin decided to revise these conditions in terms of unilateral concessions to China (now the Union). He invited Mao Zedong to donate from the USSR to China Port Arthur. However, Mao, referring to the difficult situation with regard to the war in Korea, asked for Soviet troops to stay and guard these objects. On February 14, 1950, an agreement was signed under which the Soviet troops remained at Port Arthur for another two years, and the railway administration was transferred to the jurisdiction of a joint Soviet-Chinese company. At the same time, China had provided a large loan. In late 1952 Soviet troops in Port Arthur was retained for another two years. The last Soviet troops left Port Arthur in may 1955.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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