History 05/01/20 5 main rules of survival in the siege of Leningrad
According to official data, the blockade of the Northern capital lasted 872 days. As the authors of the publication “the Siege of Leningrad: 900 heroic days,” in this time died 649 thousand of Leningrad. However, the city survived. And it happened due to the fact that people adhere to certain rules of survival.
Rules of travel
writes Valeria Cherepaschuk and other authors of the publication “Events that changed Russia,” the effectiveness of German bombing in Leningrad was not as high as planned by the enemy. This is largely due to air defense fighters and volunteers who were on duty on the roofs of houses. However, its role was played by the readiness of the citizens of Leningrad, who knew how to act during an air-RAID where the nearest bomb shelter, as well as about which path is safe.
Until now, on certain streets of St. Petersburg you can see a sign reading: “Citizens! At shelling this party of street is most dangerous!” Due to the fact that residents of the Northern capital adhered to the regulations mentioned, casualties from the bombing was minimal. Only about 3% of the victims of the siege were killed by shells. However, the second problem – hunger – proved to be worse than bombing the remaining 97% died due to malnutrition.
hunger was associated and another unwritten rule – even if the opportunity was there, the blockade seldom went to each other’s homes. According to Sergey Yarov, author of “the Siege of ethics. Morale in Leningrad in 1941-1942.”, relationships between friends during the siege inevitably changed. Of course, the death of former rituals and customs was due to the tradition to visit not empty-handed. It is clear that then the Leningraders to give was nothing to survive themselves.
the Writer A. Tarasenkov in yourx memoirs, describes his friend who first shared the bread, and then, on the contrary, began to carry the pieces to his wife. During such visits become not only guests but also the owners who had nothing to offer to friends and family. For example, K. Polzikova-Scar admitted in her diary: “When someone comes, the coffee, but the bread I buy can’t.”
General nutrition rules was to blockade the most basic. One of the residents of the besieged city, the words of which are given in the book “School of life. The memories of the children of besieged Leningrad”, recalled that their family had a strict order: one slice of bread for Breakfast and dinner and two for lunch. Eat from all the adult children were simply banned. As evidence of the effectiveness of this method, the woman tells the story of a mother and three daughters who lived at the neighbors. They barely bought bread and then ate. They all died except the youngest girl.
In the publication “the Siege of Leningrad. The national book of memory” also has a lot of similar evidence. Similarly, “the tithe”, ate even children in orphanages, which taught that no one. “Probably the instinct of self-preservation” — says a former blockade.
But as the queues for food, then people acted quite consciously. The authors of the book “the war and the blockade,” Alexander the Scraper and Valentin Kovalchuk, writing that there was always a risk that endured long hours of waiting can be cut in half criminal, or simply more sassy personality.
R. I. Neratov told me that in order to avoid such incidents, each member of the queue encircled peredistijs elbows and tightly against the body. This solidarity, in the words of Narutoboy, not only let the criminals, but also helped to retain heat and not to fall to the ground if someone gets ploho from hunger.
Not to go
meanwhile, the rules of bread decreased. According to Nikita Lomagin, the author of the book “the Unknown blockade”, in September 1941, the daily rate for the worker was 600 grams, and in November it was reduced to 250 grams. Everyone else, including children, had been only 125 grams. But as much bread oven was not that of added to the dough all the way down to sawdust. It is therefore not surprising that Leningrad even moved with great difficulty. However, despite the weakness of the move was necessary.
the rule “not to lie all the time to do something,” he recalled in the book “the Siege of Leningrad. The people’s book of memory” the woman who managed to survive these terrible days. “Who went, he never came up” — she said.
© Russian Seven
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