History 30/01/20 “12 commandments”: that is forbidden to do German soldiers in the USSR
Occupation regime established by the Third Reich, significantly differed not only from country to country but in different regions of the same country. It depended primarily on how politically valuable was the population of these countries to the Nazi leadership.
the First common feature for all, without exception Nazi-occupied countries was total segregation and the subsequent mass extermination of the Jews. This “new order” was carried out systematically everywhere in the Czech Republic, Poland, the occupied territories of the Soviet Union, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Greece, Yugoslavia. Where not ruled by the Germans and their satellites, – in Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, local governments also began to “pull orders” for sending Jews to concentration camps. And towards the end of the war, when the Germans directly occupied part of the territories of Italy and Hungary, the Holocaust started there directly.
the Second common feature was the terror of the civilian population. The tragedy of the Belarusian Khatyn, the Ukrainian Babi Yar and similar to other places in the Soviet Union is well known. In June 1942, the Nazis held a demonstration destruction of the Czech village of Lidice, along with all the adult male population. Killed more than 200 people – in response to the murder of the Czech saboteurs, trained in England, the Nazi Governor “of Bohemia and Moravia” Heydrich. In June 1944 the SS was locked in churches and burned all the population of French village Oradour-sur-Glane, which gave shelter to the partisans, more than 600 people, including women and children. Mass executions of civilian hostages was the case in Italy (after the occupation), Poland, Greece and other European countries.
the Third thing in common – the deportation of civilians to work in GermanAI. They are also made in many occupied countries.
Graduation occupation regimes
However in relation to the civilian population of the occupied countries was differences. There were legal nuances of the occupying regimes. Varied countries formally ruled by collaborationist governments and countries in which even formally there was no other power, in addition to established invaders.
thus, in France, everywhere was acting bodies of the French civil administration. In Norway there was a Quisling government. In Denmark, the Royal family was considered a prisoner of Germany, but there were functioning local police, acting in most cases, the pre-war laws of Denmark. On a single piece occupied by the Germans the UK channel Islands of the French coast – completely intact was abandoned by all the British companies. After the war the United Kingdom government even tried figures of the Resistance in the channel Islands – for the violation of the British laws, expressed in clandestine activities against the German administration!
the Dutch, Flemish, Danes, Norwegians, Englishmen were officially considered equal to the Germans. In the future of the country inhabited by Germanic peoples, was to be included in the great German Reich, since these people were considered a historical misunderstanding detached from the Germans. Almost equal to the Germans was North of the French and Walloons – are willing to take the SS.
In Yugoslavia and Greece there was a collaborationist regimes. Their creation was due to the inability to directly control these areas are covered mostly by mountains and forests. But the peoples of these countries, except Croatia, which was granted independence and the status of the ally of Germany, was not considered valuable to the Reich.
In the Western Slavic lands, the situation of the peoples differed considerably. The Slovaks before in August 1944, with the arms rebelled against Germany was an allymi, similar to the Croats and the Bulgarians, and was ruled by its government. The Czechs in the “protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia”, as the Slovenes and the poles, are directly incorporated into the Reich, subject to Germanization. The poles in most parts of Poland “General government” was delivered in the conditions of severe police-terrorist regime, almost no different from that acted on most of the occupied territories of the USSR.
the regime established by the Nazis in the Baltic States, was close to that in Western Europe. In the territories of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus existed not covered by any fiction of independence of the “new order” direct voluntary control, which, as stated by Hitler in July 1941, “only a German can own a gun, but not a Slav”. In vain were the attempts of the Minister “for the Eastern territories” of Alfred Rosenberg to allocate at least Ukraine from this order. Only in 1942 the Germans decided to declare “full”, the Union, the people of the Cossacks.
Deportation to work in Germany was carried out, as already mentioned, almost everywhere. But the form of the work differed. From the Soviet Union and Poland “Ostarbeiters” was diagonalise to perform mostly unskilled work in mining and agriculture. Treated as slaves. From France came the skilled workers who were replaced went to the front men, the Germans not only machines, but sometimes in the beds of civilized Germans.
“the 12 commandments” Rosenberg
Indicative of the attitude of the German occupation administration to the population of Eastern Slavic countries served manual Rosenberg called “12 commandments”, issued on 1 June 1941. She directed the officials to ensure that all their behavior to emphasize their belonging to a race of masters and not to converge with the population. Fear of cultural assimilation of the Russian Germans imbued with the following settings:
“don’t be spineless and sentimental! If you will cry along with Russian, n will be happy, because you despise”.
“Keep a distance between himself and the Russian… Not satisfied with them, no drinking. In any case, do not enter into any intimate relationships with women and girls entrusted to you enterprises”.
“Beware of the Russian intelligentsia… it has a special charm and art to influence the mentality of the Germans.”
“Poverty, hunger, simplicity is destiny of the Russian people for many centuries. His stomach digest it all, and therefore no false compassion. Do not attempt to approach it from German life standard… and change the Russian way of life”.
In regard to the population of the occupied countries of Western Europe such regulations did not exist. The intimate relationship of the Germans with Norwegians, the Danes, flamandkim was considered, on the contrary, “good for the race.”
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