History 13/01/20 Why not published talks Tereshkova with the Earth
In 2018, in Russia is widely celebrated the 55th anniversary of space flight of the first woman – Valentina Tereshkova. In the State Duma on this occasion was a large-scale exhibition, on Federal TV channels showed stories about the heroism of “the Seagull” and rocket and space Corporation Energia after S. P. Korolev, a whole section with photos from the launch of “Vostok-6” and excerpts from the reports TASS.
Among the materials was published and a fragment of the negotiations Tereshkova with the Ground during takeoff, as well as its logbook. These documents shed light on the circumstances of the flight of the first woman in space, speculation and mystery around which nevertheless remains quite a lot. Even now it is impossible not to wonder why society had submitted only part of the conversation, and that more than half a century.
the first of the First
Start the “Vostok-6” June 16, 1963 was a regular ship with no problems entered the calculated orbit, Tereshkova, and she was struck by the specialists composure and clarity of action.
“I’m all right. I feel great. Will make every effort to fully implement flight mission” – these words Chayka finished my first session with the Ground.
“…Everyone who saw Tereshkova during the preparation of the launch and withdrawal of the ship in orbit, who listened to her radio reports, unanimously declared: “She spent the start better than Popovich and Nikolayev (astronauts, first performed August 11, 1962, group space flight – approx. ed.)”. Yes, I am very glad that I made a mistake in choosing the first female astronaut…” – admired Lieutenant General Nikolai Kamanin, responsible for the preparation of astronauts and put a lot of effort to Valentina went into space.
But on the second day of flight behavior “Gull” began to disturb the Ground. Tereshkova began to experience health problems although not recognized by their cheerful reports were replaced with evasive answers, and sometimes she’s just not been in touch. Greatly aggravated solar activity: the radiation dose received by the astronauts threatened to exceed the limits. Besides the flash on the star led to a “swelling” of the atmosphere, which intensified the natural braking of the vehicle.
In light of these circumstance, the state Commission decided to put the “Vostok-6” on the third day – on the 49th round. Before that Tereshkova was supposed to have manual control to make sure it is operating normally, but to do it she could not. Watching the flight of the leadership feared that if the management vehicle automation fails, it will have to plant manually.
As it turned out, problems with the control system really was – when Assembly of the spacecraft mechanics made a mistake in the wiring, causing the ship had not turned in the same direction as during testing on the simulator: when the team to reduce the “Vostok-6”, began the ascent to orbit and Vice versa. Fortunately, in automatic mode, the polarity was correct and landing manual control is not required. However, more than 40 years of indiscretion known only to specialists – Tereshkova was not told about it at the request of the chief designer Sergei Korolev. For a long time most did not know and other details of the flight.
When the origin is more important than skills
But this secrecy is easy enough to explain. The practical need for flying women into space was not, moreover, acted as Sergei Korolev, and played a significant role in the Soviet space program Akademik Mstislav Keldysh and the commander of the air force Konstantin Vershinin. On the other hand, General Nikolai Kamanin was burning with this idea, though guided not by necessity, and public opinion.
During the foreign trips, together with Yuri Gagarin, he noticed that most of the first astronaut asked when the orbit OTPravitsya of the fairer sex. Besides, probably had a big influence on him, a large-scale campaign around the American pilot Jerry Cobb, who demanded to be included in the astronaut corps. Apparently, Kamanin realized that the flight of a woman beyond Earth – the nearest future and in the conditions of tough competition with the US for leadership in the space sector to miss this opportunity is unforgivable. Therefore, the General did all in his power to persuade the Soviet leadership.
that sending women into space – more image story is confirmed by the fact, how was the selection. Because the ladies in the officer rank in the Soviet Union was not a competition, it was decided to hold the “sport” direction – through DOSAAF. The presented criteria was quite unsightly: age up to 30 years, growth 170 centimeters and weighing up to 70 kilograms. The only more or less serious condition – a lot of experience in skydiving.
In the end, after consideration of the short-list of personal Affairs 58 women were selected by five Jeanne of jerkins, Tatyana Kuznetsova, Valentina Ponomaryova, Irina Solovyova and Valentina Tereshkova. Practical knowledge and skills applicable to space flight, of which at that time had only Ponomareva – she has mastered control of the aircraft Po-2 and Yak-18 and by profession was a mechanical engineer liquid rocket engines. However, she had a husband and a child that has confused those conducting the selection.
However, between Ponomareva, and Tereshkova will unfold the main fight for a place on the “East-6”. And if it took place before the flight of Gagarin, it is likely that it would have won more prepared from a professional point of view Ponomarev. However, at that time the Soviet leadership already knew what role in public life, will play the first woman in space, therefore, is not the last criterion for selection was the applicant’s ability to be active is to meet people, to speak in public, including abroad, as they said KaManin, “praising communism, and attracting to our side the vast masses of people.”
From this point of view, the best position was Tereshkova, the daughter from a peasant family, weaver of basic education.There is even a version of that point in the selection of the first female cosmonaut has put himself head of state Nikita Khrushchev, which particularly favored the representative of the textile industry. Additionally, the father of Valentina, Vladimir, died during the Soviet-Finnish war when she was two years old, and that gave her extra points.
History does not tolerate subjunctive mood
In the end, the space went Tereshkova, despite the fact that results of theoretical training and medical survey, it ranked last among the candidates. Might fly instead Ponomareva, advocated including physicians, first woman in orbit would shift the flight much easier. That, however, would not cancel technical problems, and, of course, does not detract from the merits of “the Seagull.”
Well, the “secrecy” associated with the flight, of course due to the fact that extra publicity to the Soviet leadership was not necessary. The USSR was important to be the first country that sent a woman into space, and nothing was to ruin a moment. Right or wrong – no longer has any value. It is important that the Soviet Union-Valentina Tereshkova entered the history of Astronautics.
© Russian Seven
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