What base on the moon wanted to build the Soviet Union

History 04/02/20 pinterest.somacow base on the moon wanted to build the Soviet Union

In the 1960s in the Soviet Union developed an ambitious development project long-term base on the moon . The program has already entered the final stage, when there were unforeseen circumstances that led scientists to scrap the project.

Unique opportunity

Today, the construction of a lunar base is one of the main priorities of the Russian space industry. Despite all the difficulties with the technical implementation and funding of the sector, sending on the moon of automatic and manned spacecraft within the next 15 years.

the Objectives posed in front of Russia for the lunar station, a lot. But one of them, according to experts, can dominate over the other. Talking about helium-3, which is used in thermonuclear reactions. In the surface layers of our satellite, its reserves may reach 2.5 million tons this means that to ensure the energy needs of earthlings it will last at least a thousand years. Base on the moon can act also as a place for conducting scientific experiments in various fields — Geology, biology, astronomy.

for the First time the idea of a lunar base has arisen at Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, but plans for exploration of the moon began to take real shape only after the war. The projects were considered rocket engines, landers, lunar dwellings, life support systems. In the early sixties Sergey Korolev put forward their views on the development of the moon, as well as on the development and use of lunar resources. The designer insisted on the creation of a permanent lunar base.

In 1962, Korolev instructed GSKB “Spetsmash”, which was led by Vladimir Barmin, the development of the project of a lunar base. Barmin was known for having led the design of launch pads, where he set out to conquer space Soviet missiles. His designs were distinguished by simplicity and reliability. SoOh was supposed to be a lunar station. According to rumors, Barmin refused to start the project until a known booster. Queens reassured him: “You are base, and I will decide how to deliver it to the moon.”

the Project was called “Star”, although in small circles met and other names — Columb, “Barkingmad”. In documents GSKB “Spetsmash” project was listed as “DLB” (Long-term lunar base). “Star” is still considered the most serious project for the development of our satellite.

to Exploit the lunar station was intended primarily for scientific purposes, although some researchers suggest that the base could be an ideal site for missile systems and tracking equipment, which would be beyond the reach of earthly weapons. Pilot-cosmonaut Alexei Leonov acknowledges that the moon was planned hardware launch pads that could serve both civil and military purposes.

“Lunar train”

a Place for the lunar station should be selected with the help of automatic machines. First, it was assumed to conduct the mapping phase, then a lunar soil from the scene of the alleged location of the database and only then examination of the area of the future construction with the help of the Rovers.

a Pioneer on the moon was supposed to be a heavy unmanned lunar Rover, which was designed to complete the preparatory work. Specifically for this machine at the Leningrad Institute of aviation instrumentation has been developed a scanner that could fix the issues and make a decision about the further route.

a Small vehicle to move over the surface of the moon was partly powered by solar panels, partially from the batteries. However, machines designed to transport oversized cargo and crew on long-haul planned to be equipped with mobile nuclear reactors. Thus was developed the “lunar train”, the project of which the analogy with the model traversetrain, used by the Soviet polar explorers in Antarctica.

In contrast to the “polar tractor”, “moon the train” could not be equipped with tracks, as on the moon gravity is six times smaller than the earth — its movement had to provide the wheels. Each wheel project had its own electric motor, so that the failure of one or more wheels have not been deterred by the overall progress. “Lunar train”, in addition to a truck with a nuclear engine with a capacity of 10 kW, assumed the presence of the rig and residential trailer, where they were to dwell in the builders database.

the Main thing — comfort

In the initial planning phase the database designers thought equipment lunar shelters in natural caves or niches, but soon abandoned this idea, because the search for a suitable location and arrangement could take many, many years. Decided to go the way of the construction of the Antarctic stations, taking into account the huge difference in day and night temperatures on the earth’s satellite.

was rejected by a rectangular shape designs of future lunar dwellings — they were replaced by spherical and cylindrical modules. Under the project, the length of the inhabited modules reached 8.6 m; diameter — 3.3 m; total weight 18 tons To the moon delivered a shortened unit with a length of 4 m, on the spot, thanks to the metal harmonica, he stretched to the desired length. It was planned 9 modules, each had a specific purpose: laboratory, storage, workshop, galley, canteen, medical center with a gym and three residential areas.

the Interior in order to reduce the severity of the loads was assumed to fill the inflatable furniture; living cell, on the recommendation of the psychologists, was designed for two people. A sense of enclosed space, which would inevitably have appeared at inhabitants of the modules that are supposed to offset the expense of specially selected color scheme and new lighting. Participated in the development of the concept of space Alexei Leonov offered to build one of the modules is a small pool. Full-size mock lunar bases were established on the territory of GSKB “Spetsmash” and really liked astronauts.

Work on the lunar station was to be conducted on a rotational basis — 6 months, two teams of astronauts for 12 people each. It is known that were chosen by the crews for lunar vehicles, and the flight was scheduled for the late 1980s. the Project Barmina was at a high stage of readiness, however, failed super-heavy carrier rocket H-1, which base was to be delivered to the moon. The program was closed on 24 November 1972, when an accident ended the fourth launch of “moon rocket” N-1. At this time the United States was preparing the sixth and last landing of humans on the moon. The project “Star” became the biggest failure of Sergei Korolev, the idea of building a lunar base was postponed until better times.

Taras Repin

© Russian Seven

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