The Basic Law forms the foundation for the rule of law and democratic values ​​in Germany. It protects the rights of citizens and ensures that the principles of freedom, equality and justice remain anchored in German society.

The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany is the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany. It came into force on May 23, 1949 and established the legal and political framework for the newly founded Germany after the Second World War.

The preamble to the Basic Law formulates the goal of creating a new order that guarantees global peace and justice for all citizens.

The creation of the Basic Law was a reaction to the experiences of the Weimar Republic and National Socialism. It should prevent such situations from occurring again. The fathers and mothers of the Basic Law, a group of 65 members of the Parliamentary Council, drafted a draft constitution that was intended to protect the basic rights of every individual and ensure a stable democracy.

The Basic Law consists of a preamble and 146 articles. It determines the structure and functioning of the federal government, defines fundamental rights and describes the distribution of competences between the federal and state governments. The first 19 articles, which cover fundamental rights, are particularly important. These fundamental rights guarantee, among other things, human dignity, freedom of expression, freedom of religion and equality before the law.                       

In today’s Federal Republic of Germany, the Basic Law plays a central role. It not only serves as a legal framework for the actions of the state, but is also a symbol of freedom and democracy. The Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe has the task of protecting the Basic Law. It oversees compliance with and interpretation of the Constitution and has the power to repeal laws deemed unconstitutional.

The Basic Law is also a dynamic document. Although it is stable in its basic structure, it has evolved through numerous changes over time. These changes are the result of political, social and economic changes. A significant example is the reunification of Germany in 1990, which led to the integration of the new federal states and the adjustment of some constitutional provisions.

However, changes are only possible with a two-thirds majority in the Bundestag and Bundesrat, which ensures the stability and continuity of the constitution. There are also various mechanisms through which citizens and civil society can influence constitutional development. Only the principles set out in Articles 1-20 may not be changed.

Another aspect of the current significance of the Basic Law is its role in the European Union. Germany is a member of the EU, and the Basic Law ensures that German law is compatible with EU law without endangering the sovereignty and fundamental rights that the Basic Law guarantees.