History 23/02/20 As Andrey Zhdanov became the informal ruler of Finland
not everywhere, where the Soviet Union wanted to establish political influence, he began to alter the socio-economic and political system in his own image and likeness. Stalin, then Malenkov and Khrushchev obviously wanted to ensure that between the Pro-Soviet countries of “people’s democracy” and a hostile West, there was the buffer of the bourgeois-democratic state, friendly to the USSR. One of the best incarnations of this of course was after the Second world war, Finland. She had a close foreign-policy dependence on the USSR, almost the same as the countries of the organization of the Warsaw contract (OVD). Thanks to this submission in the foreign policy of Finland managed to preserve the sanctity of their way of life.
Stalin, who sought in 1939-1941 the accession of Finland to the USSR as well as he did with three other Baltic States, to the end of the war changed his plans. Priorities were the final defeat of Nazi Germany and building relationships with the great Western powers, which did not like the annexation of Finland. Also, importantly, Stalin would have feared the decay of “moral spirit of the Soviet people” under the influence of new citizens, accustomed to the freedom and private property. Here still it was necessary “to reforge for socialism” Balts, Moldovans and Western Ukrainians and Western Belarusians. Even if you include the Soviet Union almost four million Finns, it is not known who “reforged” would in the end.
for its part, the elite of Finland knew that the time when it was possible to hope for a military revenge against the Soviet Union, with the defeat of Germany is gone forever. How did they understand and what Stalin if he wanted to, not too difficult to occupy the whole of Finland. They are now it was necessary to ensure that maximum loyalty to the Soviet Union to keep what we have.
Therefore, no matter how difficult were the conditions exhibited by the Soviet Union in the negotiations on a truce in September 1944, Finland was forced to sign them. When the head of the Finnish delegation at the negotiations held in Moscow, Prime Minister A. Hackzell, got acquainted with the Soviet terms, he was stricken by a stroke. Conditions dictate Finland’s domestic politics were the issue of the Soviet Union, its citizens (as of 21.06.1941) – Karelians, Estonians and Izhora had found refuge in Finland; the dissolution of the nationalist organizations and the legalization of the Communist party; the trial of “war criminals”. To comply with Finland’s truce (basically surrender) was established the allied control Commission, headed by Politburo member of the CPSU(b) A. A. Zhdanov.
Zhdanov in the sense of its powers and activities it is possible to liken the Royal the Governor-General of Finland N. And. Bobrikovo, eliminate the autonomy of Finland in 1898-1904 gg. 22 September 1944, Zhdanov arrived in Helsinki and from there three years, according to the instructions of Stalin, actually rules Finland (participation of British representatives in the Commission was nominal). At the request of Zhdanov, was banned organizations that the Soviet Union was considered “fascist.” On Control Commission, consisting of the Soviet NKVD, enjoyed the right of extraterritoriality, and had the opportunity for unlimited travel in Finland and control over the activities of state institutions. At the direction of Zhdanov, in March 1945, after the election, which victory was given to left parties, Prime Minister of Finland was approved by J. Paasikivi (Hellsten), whom Stalin considered “ours” after he signed the Treaty of Moscow 1940, ended the Winter war.
In November 1945 in Helsinki began the trial of the Finnish military and political leaders, “Finland has drawn aggressive the war against the Soviet Union.” In February 1946 he was sentenced. Former President R. ryti received 10 years in prison, the remaining seven defendants (two former Prime Minister, two Ministers of foreign Affairs, Ministers of Finance and education and the Ambassador in Berlin) – from two to six years. In all these activities contributed to Zhdanov, the President of Finland K. Mannerheim. His authority helped the Soviet Union without conflict to establish control over the policy of Finland. In turn, Mannerheim avoided prosecution, but, resigning from the post of President in March 1946, just in case went to Switzerland.
February 10, 1947 the victorious powers signed the Paris peace Treaty with Finland, and in September of the same year, ceased operations of the allied control Commission in Helsinki. In 1947-1949, he was gradually released and pardoned former leaders of Finland. Stalin was outraged by this gesture – obviously believed the loyalty of the Finns quite wealthy. April 6, 1948 in Moscow was signed a “Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance between the USSR and Finland”, which operated until 1992. Mostly it was the commitment of Finland to cooperate with the USSR in the case of “aggression by Germany or allied state”. Considering that in 1955 the FRG became a member of NATO, the Treaty was a form of military Alliance of the USSR with capitalist countries outside the ATS.
“the Line Paasikivi—Kekkonen” (the presidents of Finland in 1946-1956 and 1956-1981) was from a disguised form of vassal relationships, something reminiscent of the situation of the Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. Leaders of the USSR and Finland (e.g. Kekkonen and predsovmina the USSR A. N. Kosygin) had a close personal relationship. Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee had a virtual veto on the appointment of the Finnish Ministers. Finnish anti-Soviet policies during this period it was impossible to occupy high positions.
For their loyalty to the Paasikivi received in 1954the order of Lenin. Even more rich collection of Soviet awards gathered Kekkonen: the order of Lenin, order of Friendship of peoples and the international Lenin prize “For strengthening peace among peoples”. This is especially interesting in comparison with the facts of the biography of Kekkonen before 1945: in 1918, fought as a volunteer in the Finnish white guard; in the 20-30-ies he was a member of the far-right “academic Karelian society”, preaching the capture of Soviet Karelia; in 1940, the only one of the parliamentarians voted for the continuation of the war with the Soviet Union.
the Dependence of Finnish economy on the Soviet market led to the fact that after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Finnish economy experienced a severe crisis. How to write modern Finnish historians R. McCauley and J. Kokkonen, “EU membership was a good thing for the economy, but still there are those who lost in this game… the distance between the haves and have-nots has increased.”
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